Saturday, August 31, 2019
When you look up synonyms for the word Justice, or ask someone what they think the word meaner, they will spew out nouns such as: neutrality, fairness, impartiality's, etc. I believe Justice in terms of the criminal system is the collaboration of three different entities, police, court, and corrections. That have to work together to form an illusion of one single entity; and in doing this, they have to still maintain a check and balance system amongst themselves. So, no one system should be able to have full authority.For only by this can it strive for the ability to bring about a system that can observe eternally, Judge fairly, and the ability to weigh each investigation and case with a sense of impartiality. The main components of the criminal system are the police, court, and correction unit. They have to interact with one another by a collective meaner. You have the law enforcement in the forefront; they are the ones that have to enter the Ã¢â¬Å"crime scene,Ã¢â¬ take into con sideration all the evidence, collects the evidence, and they have to arrest the suspect.Once they have apprehended the suspect perceived to be the doer of the crime. The suspect at this time is taken to the rout; the evidence collected by the police is then presented at the court. Case is made by both prosecution and defense team. You have the unbiased Jury and Judge that view the case, evidence, and testimony; they deliberate and come back with a sentence. Once the suspect is sentenced, if found guilty, they are sent to a correctional institute. The correctional unit officers have to supervise the convicted felons.They have to ensure that their facility is well situated and capable of holding the convicted felons, so that both the inmates and the public can co-exist in a safe environment. The two models of the criminal Justice system are: The crime control model and the due process model. The two models differ from each other through which part of the Justice system they put their emphasis on. The Crime control model put their importance on reducing crime and criminal activities in society through implication of the Law enforcement officers, I. E. Alice/detective, taking control and in theory get to the solution and conviction as soon as possible. The Crime control model Judges the person for what they did, their role in the crime. It is more cut and dry. They believe the severity of the punishment should correlate with the crime. This theory allows for capital punishment, they don't believe one can change, or give too much importance for mental status, ethnicity, age, race, etc. The Due process model is quite the contrary, it stress the importance of taking into consideration ones race, age, demographics, etc.The Due process model put importance on respecting ones rights and following all the responsibilities of the law. While still protecting ones freedom. I think the fact that the main components of the Justice system sometimes inflict with each other are the reason why some cases get thrown out. A case, that I remember, is the clear epitome of when the Justice system failed; it took place in the 1993 Ã¢â¬Å"West Memphis Murders. Ã¢â¬ Three boys were killed in a horrific manner. Why were the murders not solved?Lack of poor evidence collected, rash decisions making, jumping to conclusion, media hype, and the police not following up on hints that were called in. They arrested three boys because they portrayed eccentric behaviors. They went on hearsay; they let the pressure of the media and public convict three caked proper detective tactics, and they pressured one of the suspects into admitting guilt. The Jury wasn't unbiased, everyone felt these boys were guilty and thus found them guilty.Had the law enforcement officers done their Jobs properly they would have followed up on the clue where there was a man completely bloody and delusional, in the bathroom of a fast food restaurant. The cops never showed up there to talk to him, the y went the next day to the restaurant took samples a sample of DNA, blood smear from the wall, and they lost that only sample of evidence. That case went unsolved, a case of three eight or nine year old boys. That shouldn't have happened. The system will fail if the three different entities of the Justice system don't act as one.Technically, I believe the crime control model is more useful because you get a verdict, action is taken, a suspect guilty of a crime pays for that crime accordingly to the severity of the crime; without technicality changing the sentence, or race, demographics, age playing a rule in how severe or lack of severity of the punishment. More criminal activities would be accounted for; people would fear law enforcement officers more. The due process model is more efficient and accurate. They enforce the rules and regulations of the law; they make sure any suspect is treated with the respect they deserve in accordance with the law.I believe both systems need to in teract with one another for it to be fair and Just. One system may come to a conclusion too quickly, while the other may allow someone guilty to get out of crime do solely to a technicality, so no one system is perfect on its own. However, I do believe the crime control model should be more prevalent in the Justice system. I think too much consideration is given to suspects, and why call someone suspect when their guilt is so evident, that really it's a point one percent chance for them not to have committed the crime.I think the severity of the crime should matter; a pedophilia serial killer should not be turned to life in prison where our tax money pays for their living. I don't think capital punishment should be banned; there are some out there that honestly don't deserve the Ã¢â¬Å"luxury' of a prison. An example of this would be, the Jodi Arias case, she stabbed her ex-boyfriend twenty-nine times, shot him, slit his throat, and left him to rot. Is it fair to say that it was an act of assign, when she stole the gun, made sure she had enough gas so that she didn't have to stop anywhere, and took pictures.
Friday, August 30, 2019
In the field of healthcare, patients have several rights they can or should utilize in order to receive the maximum benefit out of the treatment they receive. The patient should be thoroughly evaluated and one should make sure that all their rights and responsibilities are respected. However, we should also be aware that there is more than just accepting the rights and responsibilities of the patient. The decision made by the healthcare professionals should be legal and ethical in every sense. In my study, I present a case of a 14-year old girl (letÃ¢â¬â¢s name her Sara) who was presented to the hospital when she was found with cramps. Unfortunately, upon ultrasound scanning, it was revealed that she was pregnant. The pregnancy was ectopic. She was obviously hesitating to reveal this to her mother and she planned to undergo the surgery by signing the legal consent herself. However, the girl being underage, consent is definitely an issue as one has to be 18 years old or more to sign the legal consent. There are pros and cons of the issue here that will be discussed elaborately based on several evident journals supporting my arguments. As stated earlier, it is absolutely essential to make the patient aware of his or her rights and in our case, Sara is negligent regarding her rights as she is underage (14 years old). How has she really utilized her rights and what rights she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t utilize that could have benefited her? The first right that Sara had utilized correctly was the right to use the free hospital services as a public patient. The second right that can be applied in SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s case is her right to be treated with respect, dignity and consideration without taking into consideration of her age, gender, religion or culture. The third right that can be applied is the right to information where she can choose either to be a private patient or a public patient. The fourth right that is applicable in SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s case is her right to treatment based on how unwell she is. The fifth right that fits into SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s description is her right to participate in making her own decisions regarding the healthcare. Sara also has the right to learn more information about her treatment and risks in her own way so that it is easy for her to understand. This can be regarded as her sixth right. Her right to give permission for the treatment can be her seventh right and SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s eighth right is her right to keep her information confidential and private (Queensland Health Public PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Charter, 2002). While all her rights have been outlined above thoroughly, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look into each and elaborate into each concept by supporting the arguments as well with examples. Each right mentioned above conforms with her age and her right to treatment. In the first right, she gains access to free health services from the hospital which is absolutely vital as she is a resident and under the program she is insured in, she is entitled for benefits. The second right is her right to treatment irrespective of her age and other attributes. Obviously, Sara is underage and by no means does her current age status deprive her from receiving the right medical treatment. The third right that has been explained above is her right to be a public or a private patient. She can pay her own bills or have Medicare pay for her. Since she is underage, this right will apply but as a public patient as private patient right makes no sense in her case as she is not earning (or her financial dispositions have not been displayed). SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth right is her right to treatment based on her condition diagnosed, which again, fits into her category. Her right to treatment here is a surgery for her ectopic pregnancy and that should be done at the right time. The suggestion given by the health professionals is accurate and therefore, she can proceed with the treatment whenever she wishes (Queensland Health Public PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Charter, 2002). SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth right is to choose the kind of healthcare treatment she wants to proceed with. Obviously, in her case, we see that she is negligent regarding this right. However, the healthcare professionals such as the nurses or physicians may advice her (only) regarding her options. SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s sixth right, as entitled, is to learn more information about the treatment in her own way. In her case, it would be a simplified language (and not in medical terms) to explain what has actually happened to her and what she has to do for her ectopic pregnancy. SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s seventh right is her right to give permission for the treatment. She can refuse or accept to perform the surgery but as in her case, a surgery is absolutely essential as she has an ectopic pregnancy but if she refuses to do so, the healthcare professionals or physicians cannot force her into changing her decision and granting them the permission to pursue with the surgery. And finally, Sara has the right to keep her information confidential. Since she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want her mother to know about her pregnancy, any information about her pregnancy and surgery should be kept strictly confidential unless absolutely necessary to reveal, only by the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s permission (Queensland Health Public PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s Charter, 2002. All the patients have their own rights and thus they should be respected as well as taken care of without any sense of hostility towards them. SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s first right, as stated, is her right to use free hospital services as a public patient and accordingly, she has utilized her first right. Medicare was first introduced in Australia in the year 1984. Under the public sector of health financing, it has two vital functions, one of them being to cover the cost of public hospital care and other of medical physicians or practitioners. As quoted by the article below, Ã¢â¬Å"Under Medicare, all permanent Australian residents are entitled to free public hospital care when choosing to be public patients. Doctors who are appointed in the hospitals provide their medical treatment. State and territory governments provide public hospital services and work closely with the federal government and professional bodies to ensure that quality of care and appropriate standards are maintainedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Medicare also meets the bulk of costs for all out-of-hospital services such as general practitioner and specialist consultations. Ã¢â¬ (Australia Now, n. d. ). As per the quote above, Sara must have been insured under Medicare which is how she was able to proceed for the surgery or even gain access for the check-up where she was diagnosed for ectopic pregnancy. As the ICN code of ethics for nurses states in its preamble, Inherent in nursing is respect for human rights, including cultural rights, the right to life and choice, to dignity and to be treated with respect. Nursing care is respectful of and unrestricted by considerations of age, colour, creed, culture, disability or illness, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, politics, race or social statusÃ¢â¬ (ICN code of ethics, 2005). Ethically and legally, Sara has utilized her rights and therefore, it is ethical and perfectly legal for the healthcare practitioners such as doctors or nurses to treat her in the way she should be treated. As the right and regulation itself states, there is no discrimination based on any attribute in terms of treatment or providing healthcare services. Her third right, as implied, is her right to be a public or private patient. In SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s case, there is hardly any choice as she cannot choose to be a private patient (because if you are a private patient, you pay your own bills and if you are a public patient, they can have Medicare to cover your costs). Regarding the healthcare services in Australia, there is absolutely no fee limit that is charged by the doctors and therefore, one has to be extremely careful when making such choices. However, Dr. Stephen Duckett states, Ã¢â¬Å"There is, however, a government-set fee schedule. Doctors can bill patients or send their bills directly to the government insurance authority, the Health Insurance Commission (HIC). If sent to the HIC, the payment is 85% of the government-set fee for out-of-hospital expenses and 75% of the government set fee for in-hospital services; the money is paid directly to the doctor, and the doctor is not allowed to charge the patient an additional fee. About 75% of family physician services are directly billed to the HIC. If a doctor bills the patient directly, the patient then applies for the rebate of the government set feeÃ¢â¬ (Duckett, 2004). SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth right, as outlined previously, is her right for appropriate treatment for the diagnosed condition, which in her case, is ectopic pregnancy. According to Megan-Jane Johnstone, the patients have the right to appropriate case and thus she states in her book, Ã¢â¬Å"Bioethics: a nursing perspectiveÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The right to have access to appropriate care is a second sense in which a right to health care can be claimed. This sense raises important questions concerning the cultural relativity or ethno-specificity of care and its ability to accommodate peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personal preferences, health beliefs, health values and health practices. Failing to provide health care in an appropriate manner can have disastrous consequences (clinically, legally and morally)Ã¢â¬ (Johnston, 1999). Therefore, as stated by Megan-Jane, failing to provide inappropriate healthcare may lead to serious consequences and even lawsuits (when taking this in a legal perspective). The fifth right is SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s right is to choose the kind of healthcare treatment she wants to pursue with. The healthcare practitioners can only advise her on this matter and cannot force her to choose a particular kind of treatment. As suggested by her ultrasound test reports, Sara is diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy. In her case, the rights are her law. The law protects her rights. Since Sara has no option at all, she plans to proceed with the surgery of her ectopic pregnancy. According to code of ethics for nurses in Australia, as stated below, Nursing care is based on the development of a therapeutic relationship and the implementation and evaluation of therapeutic processes. Therapeutic processes include health promotion and education, counseling, nursing interventions and empowerment of individuals, families or groups to exercise maximum choice in relation to their health careÃ¢â¬ (ANMC, 2002). SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s sixth right states that the healthcare professionals should make her understand of her situation as well as treatment options in an easy-to-understand language. Ethically, it is the right thing to do as the healthcare professionals should make their patients aware of their health condition, its consequences and the treatment options in the easiest manner. In SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s case, we see that at a very young age, she is a patient with ectopic pregnancy and nothing except surgery can save her life from being ruined. According to Mary Ellen Trail Ross, Ã¢â¬Å"Nurses must frequently make arduous decisions when faced with ethical dilemmas that occur in clinical practice. Utilizing ethical principles for analyzing and reflecting on the issues may ease this difficult task. In addition, the nurse involved may experience less anxiety and uncertainty over whether or not the correct decision was madeÃ¢â¬ (Ross, 1993). We have observed that the healthcare professionals (in SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s case) have respected her rights and have advised her for the most safest and viable option. The role of nurse is taken seriously in this regard as she is the one who takes extreme care in such delicate cases. SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s seventh right is her right to give or ask permission for the treatment. Before any treatment is initiated, her complete permission has to be sought. But here involves a complexity. Sara is underage and they should have legal consent from their guardians before performing or prescribing any medical treatment. Judith M. Cassells and Barbara K. Redman emphasize on the ethical dilemmas when concerning the informed consent. In the practice, a nurse should take into account the moral aspects of nursing care when arriving on any decision (Cassells & Redman, 1988). Applying values in order to come into a decision mostly works and therefore, Sara has been given the option for the surgery. According to her right, she can utilize her free will and sign on the legal consent form without any questions from the healthcare provider as her right entails her to do so. However, a legal consent from her guardian would have done her more good as it is essentially vital for someone who is close to her (as in relations) to be by her when this surgery would take place. Ethically and legally, what Sara is doing and has gone through the surgery is right but morally speaking, the presence of someone close would have helped the patient in a great way. Lastly, Sara has her right for privacy. Legally, yes. Ethically- the hospital, the hospital staff as well as the doctors and nurses are not allowed to reveal either. The information serves in the best interest of the patient and without the written consent of the patient, no information is revealed to any person, even if the person inquiring is a close relative. Geoffrey Hunt in his book, Ã¢â¬Å"Ethical issues in nursingÃ¢â¬ has stressed on maintaining the privacy as it helps in proper management of records and helps the patient be at ease regarding his or her health information (Hunt, 1994). While all her rights have been served and the ethical aspect of every right having been discussed, we have seen how the public patient charter issued by Queensland government helped in making public aware of their rights. The rights stated therein are the laws and the ethics involved stated here are from a nursing perspective. Marie T. Hilliard in her journal article, Ã¢â¬Å"Nursing, Ethics and Professional rolesÃ¢â¬ states that there has always been a growing concern over the ethical codes and practice where nurses are involved but today, immense information has been highlighted for the public as well as the medical professionals in order to understand their practice, their laws as well as their ethics (Hilliard, 1990). Overall, the public charter has highlighted on the responsibilities and rights of the patient in a way that they are able to utilize it with full knowledge and are able to gain the maximum benefit out of it. Reference http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN016276.pdf http://icn.ch/icncode.pdf
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Job satisfaction is progressively going of import in the workplace. Employers now recognise that the Ã¢â¬Å" happier Ã¢â¬ their employees are, the better will be their attitudes towards the work, the higher their motive and the better will be their public presentation. Job satisfaction in any field of work depends a batch on how contributing the work environment is. The work itself, the wage and the range for publicity are merely some of the factors which have an impact on occupation satisfaction. Ã¢â¬Å" Educators Ã¢â¬Ë occupation satisfaction is of import as it has a direct impact on pupils Ã¢â¬Ë accomplishment and their hereafter calling Ã¢â¬ ( Pitkoff, 1993 ) . An pedagogue who is unsatisfied with his/her occupation tends to be unmotivated and more likely to get away from his/her duties. In these fortunes, we tend to see an addition in absenteeism among instructors. Such pedagogues normally show small concern in school affairs and this evidently has a negative impact on the public presentation of our kids. Assorted surveies have been carried out in the yesteryear to measure the impact of motive and occupation satisfaction on employee productiveness and public presentation ( Vroom, 1964 ) . Some of these surveies have found a positive relationship between occupation satisfaction and occupation public presentation which leads to the decision that satisfied employees tend to execute much better than less satisfied 1s.2.1 Definition of occupation satisfactionJob satisfaction is one of the most investigated subjects in the Fieldss of organisational behavior. The most-used research definition of occupation satisfaction is by Locke ( 1976 ) , who defined it as Ã¢â¬Å" . . . a enjoyable or positive emotional province ensuing from the assessment of one Ã¢â¬Ës occupation or occupation experiences Ã¢â¬ ( p. 1304 ) . It is now recognized that occupation satisfaction is a planetary construct that besides comprises assorted aspects ( Judge et al. , 2001 ) including wage, publicities, colleagues , supervising, the work itself, acknowledgment, working conditions, and company and direction. Job satisfaction has besides been defined as Ã¢â¬Å" the extent to which a staff member has favorable or positive feelings about work or the work environment Ã¢â¬ ( De Nobile, 2003 ) . It refers to the positive attitudes or emotional temperaments people may derive from work or through facets of work ( Furnham, 1997 ; Locke, 1976 ) . Ivancevich et Al. ( 1997 ) defined occupation satisfaction as the feeling and perceptual experience of a worker sing his/her work and how he or she feels himself good in an organisation. Davis and Newstrom ( 2003 ) and Dessler ( 2001 ) depict occupation satisfaction as a set of favourable or unfavourable feelings for the employees to comprehend their work and that determine the possibility of a major temperament to accomplish higher public presentation. Therefore, occupation satisfaction refers to an person Ã¢â¬Ës general attitude toward his or her occupation ( Robbins, 1998 ) . Jensen ( 2000 ) defines occupation satisfaction as: Ã¢â¬Å" a sense of personal growing most frequently measured by the extent of new challenges and larning state of affairss experienced Ã¢â¬ ( p. 1 ) . On the other manus, occupation dissatisfaction refers to Ã¢â¬Å" unhappy or negative feelings about work or the work environment Ã¢â¬ ( Furnham, 1997 ) . There exist many factors which may ensue in occupation dissatisfaction. Some of them are hapless on the job conditions, overwork, low degrees of wage, no range of publicity or calling promotion and deficiency of acknowledgment. But what is worst are the effects of occupation dissatisfaction which evidently affect both the employees and the organisation. It may ensue in loss of motive, deficiency of involvement, defeat, hapless productiveness, absenteeism and even high turnover rates. To sum up, we can state that occupation satisfaction describes how content an single with his or her occupation and besides implies making a occupation one enjoys, making it good, and being appropriately rewarded for one Ã¢â¬Ës attempts. Job satisfaction farther implies enthusiasm and felicity with one Ã¢â¬Ës work.2.2 Factors impacting occupation satisfactionJob satisfaction depends on several different factors such as satisfaction with wage, publicity chances, periphery benefits, occupation security, relationship with colleagues and supervisors and communicating within the administration. ( Nguyen, Taylor, & A ; Bradley, 2003 ) . Job satisfaction may take to be decrease by cut downing absences, undertaking mistakes, struggles at work and turnover. As work is an of import facet of people Ã¢â¬Ës lives and most people spend a big portion of their working lives at work, understanding the factors involved in occupation satisfaction is important to bettering employees Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation and productiveness.2.2.1 AgeAge is one of the factors impacting occupation satisfaction. Assorted surveies carried out in this field have shown that occupation satisfaction tends to increase with age. That is older employees tend to describe higher satisfaction and younger employees report the lowest occupation satisfaction rates ( Warr, 1992 ) . However, the survey carried out by Oshagbemi ( 2003 ) in United Kingdom ( UK ) , found that the relationship between occupation satisfaction and age was undistinguished for employees of the UK universities.2.2.2 GenderSeveral research workers have examined the relationship between occupation satisfaction and gender ( Mason, 1995 ) . However, most surveies have shown contractions in the relationship between occupation satisfaction and gender of the employees. On one manus, some surveies have found adult females to be more satisfied than work forces ( Ward and Sloane, 1998 ) , whereas other surveies have found work forces to be more satisfied than adult females ( Forgionne and Peters, 1982 ) .2.2.3 Working environmentIt is indispensable to supply employees with a work environment which is contributing to their overall development. They need an environment which is healthy and safe and which caters for both personal comfort and facilitates making a good occupation. As mentioned earlier, people spend a high per centum of their life-time at work. So we can state that employees expect more than money for the work they do. Hence, it can be said that holding a friendly and supportive environment can take to increased occupation satisfaction. Syptak, Marshland and Ulmer ( 1999 ) advise administrations to make everything they can to maintain the company Ã¢â¬Ës equipment and installations up to day of the month. In their article, they besides recommend administrations to Ã¢â¬Å" avoid overcrowding and let each employee his or her ain personal infinite, whether it is a desk, a cabinet or even merely a drawer Ã¢â¬ ( p. 1 ) .2.2.4 Fair policies and patternsÃ¢â¬Å" Persons who perceive that publicity determinations are made in a just and merely mode are likely to see satisfaction from their occupations Ã¢â¬ ( Witt and Nye, 1992 ) . Very frequently employees are demotivated and dissatisfied with their occupations because unjust policies and patterns prevail at their topographic point of work. It is hence of extreme importance for organisation to hold a just and equal system in footings of patterns and policies so that there is no favoritism and defeat. It is a fact that organisation which follows the right processs to advance employees creates a civilization of trust, trueness and beliefs in the whole organisation. When an employee gets just publicity, which is by and large based on his true appraisal, he gets a type of acknowledgment, and therefore, increases his occupation satisfaction. In other words, we can state that publicity provides chances for personal growing, more duties, and in creased societal position.2.2.5 Caring organisationTaylor ( 2000 ) suggested that occupation satisfaction is straight related to a company Ã¢â¬Ës investing in its employees Ã¢â¬Ë well- being. Arthur ( 2001 ) pointed out that employees want to believe their company truly cares about them. Care can be shown in assorted ways, but by and large it takes into consideration calling development, grownup intervention, being taken earnestly and being appreciated for a occupation good done. ( p. 221 ) . When people feel that the organisation for which they are working attentions for them and takes actions in order to better their work and lives, they are happy and this creates higher satisfaction. These employees moreover become loyal and committed.Advantages of occupation satisfaction to the administrationThe Frederick Herzberg Ã¢â¬Ës theory and occupation satisfaction To better understand what keeps occupation satisfaction high, it is of import to remember Frederick Herzberg Ã¢â¬Ës theory. The latter put frontward that satisfaction on the occupation depends on two elements: hygiene issues and incentives. Hygiene issues ( dissatisfiers ) Incentives ( satisfiers ) Organizational policies Work itself Kind of supervising Achievement Salary Recognition Interpersonal dealingss Duty Working conditions Growth chances Job security Harmonizing to the Herzberg Ã¢â¬Ës theory, Ã¢â¬Å" Hygiene issues can non actuate employees but they can assist to minimise dissatisfaction, if handled decently Ã¢â¬ ( p. 1 ) . These issues are straight related to the employee Ã¢â¬Ës working environment. On the other manus, incentives create satisfaction by carry throughing person Ã¢â¬Ës demands for significance and personal growing ( Syptak, Marshland and Ulmer, 1999 ) . The above theory can be really helpful in steering organisations on how to keep employee satisfaction.Job satisfaction and productivenessSurveies have shown that, merely a few organisations believe that occupation satisfaction is a important component in their overall scheme and really small is being done to advance it. This can be due to the fact that many administrations fail to understand the nexus between occupation satisfaction and productiveness. Should we non care about occupation satisfaction? Is it true to state that happy workers are productive 1s ? In fact, in the right conditions and scenes, occupation satisfaction can to a great degree lead to higher productiveness. If employees feel that their occupations are fun and interesting, they will be more willing to give excess attempt at work for the benefit of the whole organisation. Alternatively if employees have the feeling that their businesss are nonmeaningful and deadening, they will hold a negative attitude which will decidedly take to a diminution in productiveness.Job satisfaction helps to make a better working environmentWhen employees are basking a higher grade of occupation satisfaction they tend to be more helpful and friendly with their co-workers at work. This helps to advance teamwork where sharing of information and cognition is enhanced. Furthermore surveies have shown that occupation satisfaction among employees may take to a better and safer working environment with lesser negative struggles which otherwise would hinder the smooth running of the organisation .Job satisfaction and absenteeism and turnoverHigh rate of turnover has ever been a great job to many organisations. It evidently consequences in loss of potencies and endowments and causes immense losingss in footings of extra costs. Harmonizing to Sattler and Mullen, by and large, the more productive people are, the more satisfied they tend to be and when employees feel satisfied they are less likely to go forth the organisation. ( 2007 ) . From this, we can state that in order to retain gifted people in the administrations, directors need to invent schemes in order to convey about occupation satisfaction. Once employees are happy and satisfied at work, the rate of absenteeism and turnover will be lower.Accomplishment and dutyHarmonizing to Herzberg theory, accomplishment and duty are two of import motivational factors which can be used to make occupation satisfaction at work. Noe ( 2005 ) suggests that larning can be facilitated by supplying employees with specific disputing ends and aims Ã¢â¬ ( p.111 ) . In this context, directors need to put clear and accomplishable ends to their employees. This will assist to supply employees with a sense of accomplishment on completion of undertakings and may convey approximately more satisfaction. Furthermore administrations need to authorise and promote their employees to take more duty. Such schemes do assist to convey more satisfaction in employees and do them more loyal, committed and will hold ownership involvements in their occupations.Employee satisfaction can take to client satisfactionNumerous surveies have been carried out to look at the nexus between client and employee satisfaction. Many of them have shown a relationship between employee satisfaction, client satisfaction and profitableness. For illustration, a survey carried out at Sears Roebuck & A ; Co. showed that Ã¢â¬Å" a five-point betterment in employee attitudes led to a 1.3 rise in client satisfaction which, in bend, generated a 0.5 addition in revenues. Ã¢â¬Å" Brooks ( 2000 ) reviewed the relationship between fiscal success and client and employee variables ( e.g. , client satisfaction, employee satisfaction, etc. ) and found that, depending on market section and industry, between 40 and 80 per centum of client satisfaction and client trueness was accounted for by the relationship between employee attitudes and customer-related variables. Similarly, Vilares and Cohelo ( 2000 ) found that sensed employee satisfaction, perceived employee trueness, and perceived employee committedness had a ample impact on sensed merchandise quality and on sensed service quality. In other words, when our staff is happy, our clients will be excessively. At the bosom of these enterprises is a strong belief that today Ã¢â¬Ës employee satisfaction, trueness and commitment influence tomorrow Ã¢â¬Ës client satisfaction, trueness and commitment-and, finally, the organisation Ã¢â¬Ës net income and growing. Job satisfaction is a affair of great significance for employers. As shown above, organisations benefit a batch from satisfied employees in the undermentioned ways: aÃâ ? Lower staff turnover aÃâ ? Higher productiveness aÃâ ? Reduction in struggles and ailments aÃâ ? Punctuality ( decreased lateness ) aÃâ ? Better worked morale Therefore, we can state that occupation dissatisfaction affects both the administration and the employees negatively. If occupation dissatisfaction prevails, the administration is likely to be affected through hapless client service, quality production and profitableness. It is a clear and obvious that employees missing trueness and committedness will demo really small original thought and will remove themselves really frequently from work. All these put together will clearly ensue in hapless public presentation and low profitableness for the administration.Job satisfaction in the primary educational sectorIt is known to everyone that wages and acknowledgment are really scarce when it comes to the primary educational sector. Numerous surveies carried out by sociologists have confirmed this. Furthermore, as most of the instructors Ã¢â¬Ë work is being carried out within the walls of closed schoolrooms, instructors frequently find themselves isolated from others without any support fr om equals and higher-ups. Due to such organizational construction, instructors do non have appropriate feedback from others and frequently happen it difficult to work together so as to better their work. Harmonizing to Frase, 1992, many instructors leave learning within the first three old ages of employment as a consequence of these conditions. Decision shapers hence need to happen ways to retain instructors in the profession and maintain them motivated and at the same clip promote satisfaction. Surveies have shown reasonably convincingly that instructors are motivated more by intrinsic than by extrinsic wagess. Pastor and Erlandson ( 1982 ) Carried out a study which found that instructors identify their demands and mensurate their occupation satisfaction by factors such as engagement in decision-making, usage of valued accomplishments, freedom and independency, challenge, look of creativeness, and chance for larning. In a study conducted by Brodinsky and Neill ( 1983 ) , a bulk of school decision makers ( and instructors ) cited three policies that efficaciously improved morale and motivated their staffs: shared administration, in-service instruction, and systematic and supportive rating.New Theories of Teacher MotivationFrase, 1992 identified two sets of factors that affect instructors Ã¢â¬Ë ability to execute efficaciously and hence derive occupation satisfaction. These two factors are 1. Work context factors 2. Work content factors. Work Context Factors Work context factors are those which meet the basic demands such as aÃâ ? the category size aÃâ ? subject conditions aÃâ ? handiness of learning stuffs aÃâ ? the quality of the caput maestro Ã¢â¬Ës supervising and his/her leading manner Harmonizing to Frase, 1992, the above context factors do non convey occupation satisfaction as such. However, during their absences or if non good handled, jobs which might impact the instruction and larning procedure might harvest. They may therefore take to occupation dissatisfaction. Work Content Factors Harmonizing to Frase, one time once more, work content factors are intrinsic facets related to the work itself. They include chances for aÃâ ? professional development such as farther on occupation developing taking to personal growing aÃâ ? Recognition of difficult work aÃâ ? challenging and varied undertakings aÃâ ? increased duty and authorization aÃâ ? accomplishment and authorization. Surveies carried out by the National Center for Education Statistics in the United States ( 1997 ) have clearly shown that instructors who do non experience supported in the above Fieldss are less motivated to make their best work in the schoolroom. Their informations confirm that Ã¢â¬Å" staff acknowledgment, parental support, teacher engagement in school determination devising and control in the schoolroom are the factors most strongly associated with teacher satisfaction Ã¢â¬ .Troubles pedagogues face in the schoolroomAs an pedagogue, it can convey much satisfaction to see pupils develop new accomplishments and competencies and accomplish success in footings of cognition. However, it may be thwarting when one is covering with unmotivated or disrespectful pupils. Very frequently, instructors must get by with boisterous behavior and force in the schools. Teachers may see emphasis in covering with big categories, heavy work loads, or old schools that are run down and lack many mod ern installations. Accountability criterions besides may increase emphasis degrees, with instructors expected to bring forth pupils who are able to exhibit satisfactory public presentation on standardized trials in nucleus topics. Many instructors are besides frustrated by the deficiency of control they have over what they are required to learn.Working ConditionssIt takes a nice work environment to learn good. Art 8 or the 1966 ILO/UNESCO Recommendation states that, we must better the on the job conditions and school environment so as to Ã¢â¬Å" best promote effectual acquisition and instruction, and enable instructors to concentrate on their professional undertakings. Ã¢â¬ Workload has to be just to be able to transport or tasks efficaciously and must non hold a negative impact on the wellness and safety of instructors. Besides, the governments must give equal instruction resources to all educational establishments.School climeThe values, attitudes, outlooks and behaviour more o r less shared by the members of a school community are by and large referred to as school clime. A positive school clime plays an of import function in furthering instructors Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation, academic accomplishment of pupils and school motive. A positive school clime nurtures an ambiance of trust and common regard between each and everyone in the school. Teachers would wish to work in schools where they can experience comfy with their co-workers and the school leading. Therefore, making a healthy school environment for everyone Begins by back uping healthy relationships among the staff. Healthy relationships produce a clime conducive to honesty, unfastened communicating, and risk-taking ( Ames & A ; Miller, 1994 ) . In a true acquisition community, concerted acquisition and common regard are expected of module every bit good as pupils. Establishing a supportive school environment additions self-esteem and accomplishment ( Cantwell, 2003 ) .LeadershipTeachers are more satisfied when their caput instructors are good and theoretical account leaders. This includes actuating employees to make a good occupation and endeavoring for excellence. Effective caput instructors create constructions in which it is clear that instructors have a certain authorization. In certain schools some head instructors empower their instructors to work on certain undertakings like making a media and audio ocular room, or making other constructions for the benefit and public a ssistance of pupils every bit good as for staff members. Such sort of authorization and trust in employees yield committedness, trueness and higher public presentation at the topographic point of work. Such leaders motivate subsidiaries to make more than originally expected. They raise the consciousness of subsidiaries about the importance and value of designated results and ways of making them and, in bend, acquire subsidiaries to exceed their ain immediate opportunisms for the interest of the mission and vision of the organisation. ( Yammarino, Spangler and Bass,1993 ) .Teachers Ã¢â¬Ë public presentationEducators Ã¢â¬Ë occupation is one which does non bring forth touchable goods whose quality could be measured quantitatively. Their occupations consist of fixing students of 5-11 old ages old academically and assist them in their overall development. As a affair of fact, it is hard to mensurate their public presentation. A few old ages back, with superior system at the CPE degree, inspectors and school caput instructors used to measure the public presentation of their staff by analysing the public presentation of pupils in the concluding test. However, this is non an ideal manner of mensurating public presentation as there are other factors apart from the CPE base on balls rate which are linked to the instructor Ã¢â¬Ës public presentation. Training After completion of a two twelvemonth sheepskin class at the Mauritius Institute of Education ( MIE ) , the pedagogue is posted in a given school and is assigned the duty of a category. The MIE together with the Ministry of Education offer auxiliary classs so as to upgrade the criterions of pedagogues and at the same clip maintain them abreast alterations happening in footings of methodological analysis, contents and course of study. Some of these classs are: aÃâ ? Certificate in Educational Management aÃâ ? Diploma in Educational Management aÃâ ? Advanced Certificate in Educational Management After the completion of these classs, pedagogues are eligible for a rise in their salary and furthermore are eligible to contend for occupations like Deputy Head Teacher and Head Teacher. It is a fact that the more positive the perceptual experiences employees have refering the utility and range of promotion the preparation Sessionss will supply to them, the higher will their occupation satisfaction. Promotional chances Promotion in the primary sector is based on senior status. It is merely after about 20 five old ages of service that a instructor will be automatically promoted to Deputy Head Teacher. From at that place, the latter will hold to wait for some five more old ages to draw a bead on to go the caput of a school. As a affair of fact, the promotional range is instead restricted and this is a existent demotivating factor to many pedagogues in the field.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Thin Client Operating System Security - Essay Example In addition, thin clients have reduced downtime and significantly improved performance1. More importantly through is the fact that thin computers provide enhanced security as compared to desktop PCs. Thin client operating system describes a small size client OS which require much fewer resources as compared to fat clients which are much large and high resource dependent. This essay gives a critical analysis and discussion of the security implications which are related to systems such as Windows CE, Google Chromium and Linux which make use of the thin client operating system. Wide scale security threats and incidences are associated with machines or systems that are Windows based. It in this regard that thin clients have been described to be useful within networks of various organizations with a view of boosting their security. It is however important to note that thin client where originally developed with an aim of providing remote access to Windows which utilized them. Regardless o f this original function, it is notable that the concepts and protocols associated with thin client operating systems have helped many companies or organizations to significantly improve the security of their Windows. ... ilize thin clients such as Google Chromium, Linux and Windows CE allow the thin clients to access the central server of their networks for multiple or numerous user sessions. This is achieved through the capability of the thin operating system to utilize Windows Terminal Services. It is therefore notable that thin clients provide Windows which use them with multiple sessions which emanate from a central system3. This paradigm is similar to that of a mainframe computer. However the implication of thin client operating system on improved network security does not result from its ability to maintain an organization network which is composed of PCs that are Windows based. Instead, the role of thin operating system in network security is related or focused on the Windows servers which provide the main sessions for the network. It is important to consider though that there are drawbacks which are related to the application of thin clients to achieve remote desktops that are session based. The most significant of these drawbacks is network speed. It has been noted that even within a fast network, the application of remote access to desktops us significantly slower as compared to a PC. The reduction in speed is regardless of the security benefits which are associated with the remote access and as a result, organizations are mandated to make tradeoffs which allow them to decide on either the benefits associated with security or speed. The utilization of thin operating system by Google Chromium, Linux and Windows CE significantly reduces the overall costs associated with securing networks. Many organizations employ standardized and reproducible PCs with Windows within their system4. When thin clients are implemented in such systems and their networks, it leads to a situation
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Final - Term Paper Example Analyzing some of the recent incidents it is quite evident that the terrorist attacks are increasing day by day and there occurs a number of causalities and death. The recent reports appeared in the media relating to terrorism is quite alarming. The suicide bombings which tolled the lives of about 70 people and more than 100 causalities in Yemen in two separate incidents on 9th October, the death of two dozen people in a suicide bomb attack in Baghdad, Iraq on 1st November, the murder of six guards riddled with bullets in Philippines on November 2nd this year, are some of the recent terrorist attacks. Analyzing the recent terrors in the world, it is quite visible that it is none other than the Islamic States who executed thousands of men in the Middle-East countries. They conduct massive attacks with latest weapons and have already conquered a major portion of this region. According to the media reports that appeared on 30th October, the Islamic State executed one-hundred and fifty Iraqi villagers, and threw their bodies into a mass grave. This incident is one among the deadly attacks of the Islamic State which form a parallel government in th e Middle East region now. ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) or ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) has been identified as a Sunni, extremist, jihadist group which proclaimed themselves to be a parallel state based on Caliphate and establishes its power in Iraq and Syria in the Middle East. It is often viewed as the true adherent of al-Qaeda and implemented the draconian Sharia law, which in reality curtailed almost all the freedoms of women folk. This law strictly suggests the women to cover themselves from head to toe, denies education, and even restricting the food items that women can purchase. When the U.S. troops in Iraq exercised strict actions to regulate these terrorist groups,
Knowledgenagment - Personal Statement Example Knowledge management in organizations has three dimensions that are characterized by strategic dimensions that highlight the importance of knowledge and its management in a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy (Liebowitz and Dalkir 144). Managerial dimensions entail the management and assessment of organizational knowledge. According to Liebowitz and Dalkir (139), operational dimensions highlight the development and utilization of knowledge and intellectual assets. BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s taxonomy refers the classification of learning outcomes into three domains which include cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. Cognitive domains are mostly emphasized by educators due to their ability to enhance the efficiency and performance of workers in an organization (Liebowitz and Dalkir 94). This domain is divided into six domains namely: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Affective domains are characterized by peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional abilities and skills to react to different situations and circumstances. This domain is mainly concerned with employee awareness and their growth in terms of attitudes, feelings and emotions towards their responsibilities. Affective domains have five divisions which include receiving, responding, valuing, characterization and organizing. Psychomotor domains refer to workersÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to physically manipulate tools and gadgets like electric saws and screw drivers. The domain focuses on developing, growing and improving behavior and skills (Liebowitz and Dalkir 173). Bloom never categorized this domain, but other educators have divided it into seven division. They include: complex overt response, mechanism, perception, set, guided response, origination and
Monday, August 26, 2019
Business management - Personal Statement Example Currently, I am studying business studies at college and I believe that this will give me fundamental knowledge that will be of great help on my enrolment for a degree course in business management. Additionally, I have been working for Wallis at Debenhams for three years now, which has enabled me to become dynamic and resourceful with interpersonal and negotiation skills, an outstanding team player, open minded and excellent in networking. I have also acquired analytical, managerial and leadership skills among others. I believe that pursuing this course will give me the chance to sharpen these skills further and increase my knowledge in business management. Moreover, some of my hobbies including travelling and reading magazines especially business-related ones help me explore diverse business ventures, boost my interest in business management in addition to keeping me up to date with current affairs in business world. I have no misgivings that this exposure to the field of business will greatly influence my performance in my degree course. My request for a chance to pursue business management is based on my passion to delve into the world of business where I aspire to own and manage my own business. I am looking forward to excel in my degree program and thereafter pursue a Masters degree in business management. My willingness to learn together with my open mind, determination, attention to details as well as my strong will to deliver quality and relevant results will be important assets as I study. With the training and support that I will get from my tutors, I will certainly perform well. I kindly hope that you will consider my application and give me the opportunity to do what I love doing most: serving humanity as a business
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Distortions in Global Warming - Essay Example The Distortions in Global Warming According to Spencer Weart (2003), there are scientists who claim that there had been no real global warming trend at all, that the statistics of record-breaking heat since 1970s were illusory. (p. 165) For instance, according to him, expert groups somehow failed to properly account for the well-known effects of urbanization in the temperature fluctuation when they compiled weather statistics. Furthermore, Weart argued that leading climate modelers, those who simulate the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate and atmosphere, have admitted that there were discrepancies on the tools and methods used and, hence, the results of their procedure. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"their models typically had a strong sensitivity to greenhouse gases, predicting roughly 3 degrees Celsius of global warming for a doubling of CO2Ã¢â¬ ¦ For the known increase of greenhouse gases over the twentieth century, the models calculated a one-degree rise, but the temperature actually recorded had risen half a degree. Another galling problem was that different models gave different predictions for just how global warming would affect a given locality.Ã¢â¬ (p. 165) Global warming is an exaggerated issue. It is predictably blown out of proportion by the political and professional climate in which it evolved. As previously mentioned, elsewhere in this paper, the prevention of the warming of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere is a valid issue. But the propensity of the global warming hype makes a fool out of people and becomes an open entry for political, economic and even media exploitation.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Case study - Assignment Example The nursing assessment tools relevant for the situation of David Kings are Crichton Royal behavior scale and the Barthel Index. Barthel Index encompasses ten items for measuring daily functioning of patients and particularly mobility and daily living (Gallao 2006, pg. 201). The tool helps in investigating items such as moving, feeding, transferring to toilet and back, bathing, walking, dressing, grooming, up and downstairs movement and continence of bladder. The Barthel Index is important here considering that the situation of avid King disenables him practicing self-care or operating independent of a caretaker. His hands are weak, he cannot communicate and has incontinent bladder that makes the tool the best for offering comprehensive care. Crichton Royal behavior scale measures patientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability in ten dimensions or items that include mobility, memory, self-care, social disturbances, communication and orientation (Schachter 2011, pg. 181). This toll is relevant considering t hat it guides in accurate assessment on issues that directly affect David Kings. For instance, the tool cab help a nurse assess and scale communication, coordination and memory capability of the patient. From the description of the case study, David Kings seems to be suffering from three health problems that include heart attack, body injuries and impaired memory. Body injuries resulting from the slump that necessitated admission of David Kings in the hospital is the most urgent health care problem that nurses need to attend. Impaired memory and cognition is the second most urgent healthcare need about David Kings and which requires quick attention. Heart attack that could be due blood pressure requires the least urgent medical care. The reason for making manifest and hidden body injuries as urgent healthcare problems facing David Kings relates to the magnitude of the pain that the problem is likely to cause to the patient. Managing and
Friday, August 23, 2019
International business management and strategy - Essay Example The car industry is buoyant. Recent data from Centro Studi Promotor (CSP) notes that the sale of new cars in Italy in 2005 totaled 2,234,174.This reflects the general buoyancy considering the increased gasoline prices, the weak economic situation and the fiscal burden on car ownership. This is the ninth consecutive year that new car sales in Italy have exceeded 2,230,000 which proves that the market is relatively stable. Italian brands lost 1.46% while foreign brands lost 1.30%.Italian brands (the dominant Fiat Auto Spa) claimed 28.04% of the market share and manufactured four out of every ten best selling cars. The main international brands included-GM (Opel and Chevrolet), Ford (Ford+Mazda+Land Rover+ Volvo), Volkswagen (Volkswagen+Audi+Skoda). The fiscal burden on the ownership of cars is a stark reality. In 2003, the Government hiked taxes on luxury cars and sports utility vehicles in a bid to reduce the deficit budget and control pollution. Vehicles weighing more than 2600 kilos were subject to higher taxes. The chief components of the generic strategy are-cost leadership, differentiation and market segmentation.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Indigenous Peoples and the Europeans Essay Introduction This School Based Assignment project is based on the British in Jamaica during the 17th to mid- 20th Centuries. The History of the British in Jamaica dates back to when the British battled the Spanish for the possession of Jamaica, by which they won. Jamaica, under British rule became One of the most prized Colonia Possession of the entire British Empire, because of its wealth From the Introduction of Sugar Cane. They also were the main Colonial power in Jamaica for The longest period of time of over more than 300 years. It is important for us as citizens to Know about our history of the British since they left a big legacy behind in Jamaica. They have Brought main aspects of their culture e.g. Architecture, Food, Language, Religion and many Others, to Jamaica, resulting in these aspects being a part of the Ã¢â¬ËMelting PotÃ¢â¬â¢ of our Multidiversed Culture in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Society .The Researcher hopes that Readers will enjoy reading This veryÃ Informative and Interesting Project about JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s Past. Food Patty Originated from the United Kingdom, the pastry is a meat pie, which dates Back from Middle English, which consists of a circle of pastry folded to enclose a Highly spiced filling, somewhat resembling an English Cornish pastry. According to Senior; Oliver: Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage Ã¢â¬âPage 378, presently it is a favour- Ite Convenience food of Jamaicans, widely eaten and exported overseas . Otaheite apple This fruit was brought and introduced to Jamaica in 1793 by Captain Bligh, An English captain, and was originated in Malaysia. This large fruit tree occurs in The bearing seasons between February-March and June-July, when not only the Fruit but the treeÃ¢â¬â¢s spectacular display can be enjoyed. The best thing that is Enjoyable about the Otaheite apple is its thin skin that is usually eaten along with The sweet and snowy white flesh that surrounds a large seed; similar features of Other apples like the Rose apple. The Otaheite apple is used in making Preserves And wine, and is also used in medicine-making which has health-giving properties As other apples. Easter Bun The Easter Bun derives from the English tradition of Hot Cross Buns at Good Friday which became popular during Tudor days. Currently, Easter Buns are Popular all year round in Jamaica, with Ã¢â¬ËBun and CheeseÃ¢â¬â¢ being fairly common fare, But Spicy and fruit-rich Ã¢â¬ËEaster bunÃ¢â¬â¢ being special. Easter buns are familiar to Christmas Puddings are exported overseas to Jamaican relatives and families. Ackee National Fruit of Jamaica and one-half of the Ã¢â¬Ënational dishÃ¢â¬â¢-Ackee and Saltfish.The name Ackee or Akee is from the Twi language of Ghana. It wasÃ brought By Captain Bligh, who brought the breadfruit-another fruit, to Jamaica , in turn Took the first ackee from Jamaica to London, which in 1806, was officially Described and given the botanical name BlighiaSapidain his honour. The tree Comes from West Africa, its introduction recorded in 1778 when some plants were purchased from the captain of a slave ship. The colour of the aril helps to identify The two main varieties, that with a soft yellow aril is popularly called Ã¢â¬ËbutterÃ¢â¬â¢ while Ã¢â¬ËcheeseÃ¢â¬â¢ is hard and creamed-coloured. The tree is a familiar sight in most Jamaican yards, including urban areas, it grows up to 15m under favourable Conditions which bears fruits 7.5-10 cm long.It is used in preparing dishes including Ackee and Saltfish; it is also used in folk medicine for colds and pains. Breadfruit The Breadfruit was brought to Jamaica by Captain William Bligh before 1793 After obtaining them from the South Pacific islands of Tahiti and Timor and sailing To the West Indies distributing them to various Caribbean islands including Jamaica. In the colonial days, Planters were seeking a cheap source of food for the Slaves in Jamaica and would pay reasonable costs to anyone who could supply Them with breadfruit that produced bread, which influenced the arrival of the Breadfruit. The first trees were planted at Bath Garden, St. Thomas, immediately The fruit flourished onto Jamaican Soil, even though it took many years before the Population could attempt to eat this strange fruit.Today the breadfruit is prepared And eaten in many ways and is a favourite starches of most Jamaicans. In folk Medicine,it is used as a tea to relieve hypertension and the gum makes an effective For contagious diseases like TineaVersicolor or Liver Spots. Breadfruit Religion Anglican The Church of England was the state church from the time the English took Jamaica from the Spaniards in 1655, until the church was disestablished in 1872. Originally the church of England, the term Anglican was used from theÃ 19th Century. During the 1960s , the church of England in Jamaica was renamed the Anglican church of Jamaica in the province of the west indies. Jamaica was divided By the English colonists into parishes, having each establish a parish church. Dominated as it was by the sugar planters and English government officials, the Church was described as an ornamental adjunct to the state, making little effort To the majority of the population, which consisted of free blacks and coloured People. The churchÃ¢â¬â¢s supremacy was challenged from the 18th century by the Arrival of the non-conformists, which was naturally hostile to these efforts. Such Hostility reached a climax following the slave revolt of 1831-1832 when renegade Anglican clergymen and churchmen formed the colonial church union to destroy Non-conformist chapels and to send them off the island to prevent emancipation, But unfortunately failed. Nevertheless, some planters took interest in the slaves And bishop of London sent a bishop to the island who was appointed in 1825, to Undertake administration and the affairs of the church which resulted in the Revitalization of the church in the later years and new membership. St. Andrew Parish Church,Half-Way-Tree Methodist The church was founded by Charles Wesley, a missionary, within the Anglican Church to fortify and supplement the work of that church. Wesley and his assoc- Iates were known for their Methodist way in which people followed and observed Their principles; which eventually they became known as Ã¢â¬ËWesleyan MethodistsÃ¢â¬â¢. The Methodists then established Missionary Societies in the American colonies, Breaking with the Anglican church but was not fully established as the Methodist Church. Until after WesleyÃ¢â¬â¢s death, when Dr. Thomas Coke, Superintendent of the American Methodists established the first church (Coke Church) and organized for Missionaries to come and preach to the non-white population in Jamaica despite numerous obstacles. Coke Church,Kingston Moravian The Moravians were the first Christian missionaries to come to the island with The express purpose of Christianizing the slaves. They were not very successful at First: arriving in 1754, by 1800 they had baptised less than 1,000 Africans in the Island. The sect was founded by Count Nikolaus Von Zinderdorf in Moravia in Central Czechoslovakia. They began ministering to the slaves in the West Indies in 1732 and came to Jamaica at the invitation of two landowning brothers in St. Elizabeth by the names of Joseph Barham and William Foster, where they contin- Ued preaching and ministering to people and eventually, started establishing Moravian churches in Jamaica. Salem Moravian Church,Beeston Spring, Westmoreland Presbyterian A protestant church governed by presbyters or by elders and adhering to varying Modified forms of Calvinism, the church had its beginnings in the preaching of John Knox in Scotland. In 1688 the Church of Scotland became the Presbyterian Church of Scotland but there were many breakaway groups, brought by the Scots To which they migrated. In 1813, the many residing Scots in Kingston began a drive To build a church and the islandÃ¢â¬â¢s first Presbyterian church was opened on April 4, 1819 as the Scots Kirk, later renamed St. AndrewÃ¢â¬â¢s Scots Kirk. Not attached to any Mission board abroad, the congregation asked the Church of Scotland to send a Minister and the Revd John Brown arrived and became the first minister for the Church. St. AndrewÃ¢â¬â¢s Scots Kirk United Church, Kingston Architecture Jamaican Georgian Architecture From the 1750s until the1850s, Jamaican Georgian Architecture was the most Popular style in the country. It combined the elegance of British Georgian architec- Ture with functional objectives appropriate to tropical climate, built to withstand Heat, earthquakes, humidity, hurricanes and insects. Some common features to This style include ballus trades, ornate and deep fascia boards, contrasting lattices And pineapple shaped finials located aboveÃ rooflines and comices. This style quickly Became the default style across the island and was used to design major public Buildings, from railway stations to simple domestic houses. Individually, houses Differed according to the architectÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s taste and wealth. In contrast to other houses in the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, Jamaican houses were elevated using stilts or plinings to give room to air circulat- Ion. This was an effective to prevent rot, keep the ground cool, and to prevent Insects, scorpions, rats and snakes from entering living areas. Devon House in Kingston is a classic example of Georgian Style of architecture with its neoclassical Form, symmetry and wide, sweeping stairways. Devon House,Kingston Jamaican Vernacular Architecture In the 18th century, however, not yet everyone could afford to build buildings in The Georgian style. When the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s incomes were low or the construction sites Were too demanding, smaller and less fancy houses were built in a style that was More appropriate to the situation. The Jamaican Vernacular architectural style Was common among tenant farms and servants, but also by the children of freed Slaves. These houses were typically positioned in such a way to prevent kitchen Smoke,fromreaching the living spaces and had very large inner spaces, must like The bothies of 18th scotland and until today, these houses attracted then attention Of critics as they are very well designed, appropriately placed and make intultive Use of inferior space.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Journal of Consumer Behavior Essay Consumer complaints and recovery through guaranteeing self-service technology NICHOLA ROBERTSON1*, LISA MCQUILKEN1 and JAY KANDAMPULLY2 1 Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia 2 Ohio State University, 266 Campbell Hall, 1787 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA ABSTRACT Self-service technologies are shaping the future of consumer behaviour, yet consumers often experience service failure in this context. This conceptual paper focuses on self-service technology failure and recovery. A consumer perspective is taken. Recovering from self-service technology failure is fraught with difficulty, mainly because of the absence of service personnel. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical framework and associated research propositions in respect to the positive role that service guarantees can play in the context of self-service technology failure and recovery. It contributes to the consumer behaviour domain by unifying the theory pertaining to consumer complaint behaviour, service recovery, specifically consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of justice, and service guarantees, which are set in a distinctive self-service technology context. It is advanced that service guarantees, specifically multiple attribute-specific guarantees, are associated with consumer voice complaints following self-service technology failure, which is contingent on the attribution of blame in the light of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ production role. Service guarantees are argued to be associated with consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of just recovery in the selfservice technology context when they promise to fix the problem, compensate only when the problem cannot be remedied, offer a choice of compensation that is contingent on failure severity, afford ease of invocation and collection, and provide a personalised response to failures. Previous classifications of SSTs are used to highlight the applicability of guarantees for different types of SSTs. Managerial implications based on the theoretical framework are presented, along with future research directions. Copyright Ã © 2011 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. INTRODUCTION The growing application of technology in services hasÃ transformed the way that organisations interact with consumers (Liljander et al., 2006). Self-service technologies (SSTs) are technological interfaces that enable consumers to generate benefits for themselves, without the presence of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel (Meuter et al., 2000). They enable consumers to take an active role in the production of their service experience. As SSTs are a major force shaping consumer behaviour (Beatson et al., 2006), the implications for both consumers and organisations need to be considered. The failure of SSTs is commonplace (Forbes, 2008; Robertson and Shaw, 2009). SST failure, or consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception that one or more aspects of SST delivery have not met their expectations, is attributed to poor service and failing technology (Meuter et al., 2000). Failures are inevitable with all services, especially SSTs that introduce new types of failures, such as consumer failures (Forbes, 2008; Meuter et al., 2000). However, SST recovery, e.g., fixing the problem and providing compensation, is generally reported to be poor (Forbes, 2008). While consumers demand a superior response to SST failure, complaints are largely ineffectively handled in this context (Collier and Bienstock, 2006). This is despite the fact that SST failure intensifies the need for recovery because consumers are often remote from service personnel (Collier and Bienstock, 2006). SST providers have ignored consumers, denied responsibility for failure, blamed consumers for the problem, *Correspondence to: Nichola Robertson, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia. E-mail: [emailprotected]Ã and provided a generic complaint response (Forbes, 2008; Holloway and Beatty, 2003). Unsurprisingly, consumers might not bother voicing because they believe that it will be useless (Holloway and Beatty, 2003; Snellman and Vihtkari, 2003). If consumers are dissatisfied with an SST encounter and service recovery is perceived to be inept, they will switch and/or spread negative word of mouth and/or mouse (Collier and Bienstock, 2006 ; Dong et al., 2008; Harris et al., 2006a). In the interpersonal service context, it has been argued, albeit rarely, that service guarantees, or explicit promises made by organisations to deliver a certain level of service to satisfy consumers and to remunerate them if the service fails (Hogreve and Gremler, 2009), are an effective recovery tool (BjÃ ¶rlin-LidÃ ©n and SkÃ ¥lÃ ©n,Ã 2003; Kashyap, 2001; McColl et al., 2005). In a recovery encounter, service guarantees have been found to provide benefits, such as reducing consumer dissatisfaction, negative word of mouth, and switching (Wirtz, 1998). We argue that in the context of SST failure, service guarantees could act as a surrogate for service personnel who, in the interpersonal service context, encourage consumer complaints and facilitate recovery. Following our extensive review of service guarantees employed in the SST context, it was revealed that guarantees are uncommon in practice for non-Internet SSTs, such as kiosks and interactive voice response (IVR). However, in the Internet context, they appear to be more widespread. For example, guarantees are often used in the context of online banking, where online security, in particular, is guaranteed. They are also prevalent in the hotel context, typically in the form of online price matching guarantees. Therefore, the Ã¢â¬Ëreal-lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ examples of SST guarantees provided throughout this paper are skewed toward Internet SSTs. However, inÃ N. Robertson et al. guarantees also have the ability to enhance consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of fairness following failure. SST guarantees indicate justice in a context that is mostly devoid of interpersonal and other external cues, thereby encouraging consumer voice, facilitating service recovery, and, ultimately, retaining the organ isationÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and its consumers. Our paper contributes to the consumer behaviour domain by adding to the underdeveloped literature on consumer complaints, consumer recovery perceptions, and service guarantees in the SST context, in addition to bringing these independent streams of literature together. As SST recovery in practice is reported to be deficient from the consumer perspective, further exploration of this topic is warranted. The remainder of this paper justifies a conceptual framework that describes how guarantees applied to different types of SSTs can encourage consumers to voice following failure and enable organisations to provide just recovery for consumers. We close with theoretical contributions, managerial implications, and an agenda forÃ future research. developing our propositions, we apply the SST classification schemes developed by Dabholkar (1994) and Meuter et al. (2000) in respect to technology type, purpose, and location. These schemes will be used to highlight the SST contexts that best fit the application of guarantees, which is beyond Internet SSTs. There are two key types of guarantees commonly offered in interpersonal services, unconditional and attributespecific, that also appear to be relevant in the SST setting. An unconditional guarantee covers the core service offering, and consumers are free to invoke it whenever they are dissatisfied (Wirtz et al., 2000). The attribute-specific guarantee is narrower in breadth, covering either a single or multiple service attributes (Van Looy et al., 2003). It is directed to areas within an organisation where consumers perceive that the guarantee adds value (Hart et al., 1992). The attribute-specific guarantee is the type most common in interpersonal services (Van Looy et al., 2003 ). Our review revealed that this also applies to SSTs. For example, Hertz car rental offers its consumers online check-in for rentals. It guarantees that online check-in enables consumers to pick up a rental vehicle within 10 minutes or less. If it fails to fulfil this specific promise, consumers are credited $50. In another example, match.com, an online dating service, guarantees via its Ã¢â¬ËMake Love Happen GuaranteeÃ¢â¬â¢, that if consumers do not find someone special in six months of using its site, it will provide them with six months free service. In the interpersonal service context, consumers have been found to prefer attribute-specific guarantees when they consider invoking the guarantee, Ã¢â¬Ë. . . probably for their clarity and manifest natureÃ¢â¬â¢ (McDougall et al., 1998: 289). We further argue that in the SST context, generally devoid of service personnel and, therefore, with reduced opportunities for consumer monitoring, the clarity of an attribute-specific guara ntee is less likely to attract consumer abuse (McCollough and Gremler, 2004). Therefore, we advocate and assume for the remainder of this paper an attribute-specific guarantee. This can cover multiple SST attributes, which is referred to as a multiple attribute-specific guarantee. For example, BestPrintingOnline.com, an online printing service, guarantees both the quality of its product and on-timeÃ delivery. This type of guarantee provides consumers with the opportunity to complain about several SST problems via guarantee invocation (BjÃ ¶rlin-LidÃ ©n and SkÃ ¥lÃ ©n, 2003). In the context of service recovery, the examination of service guarantees has been scarce, and the use of service guarantees in the SST context has not been examined before. This is confirmed by Hogreve and Gremler (2009) in their review of the past 20years of service guarantee research. To begin to address these gaps, our paper conceptualises the role of service guarantees in the SST failure and recovery context from the consumer perspective. We consider different types of SSTs in developing our propositions. We argue that SST guarantees encourage consumers to voice their complaints via guarantee invocation in the absence of service personnel. In line with the call for research examining the justice dimensions (i.e., distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of service recovery in the SST context (Forbes et al., 2005), we propose that SST Copyright Ã © 2011 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework proposed (see Figure 1) is grounded in the theory pertaining to service guarantees, consumer voice, attribution theory, and justice theory. In justifying the framework, the distinctive characteristics of the SST context were considered, including the requirement of consumer co-production that is independent of service personnel, a lack of interpersonal interaction with service personnel, and consumers being obliged to interface and interact with technology (Robertson and Shaw, 2009). When studying SSTs, it is important to distinguish meaningfully between their types (Meuter et al., 2000). In terms of categorising SSTs, two key classification schemes can be drawn. The most cited classification scheme is that proposed by Dabholkar (1994). Her classification scheme considers the following variables: (i) who delivers the service (degree and level of consumer participation); (ii) where the service is delivered (location of the SST, i.e. remote, such as IVR or onsite, such as kiosks); and (iii) how the service is delivered (technology type, i.e. Internet and non-Internet, such as kiosks and IVR). More recently, Meuter et al. (2000) proposed a similar classification of SSTs. As per DabholkarÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) scheme, they included the different types of technologies that organisations use to interface with consumers (i.e.,Ã Internet and non-Internet) and the purpose of the technology from the viewpoint of consumers, that is, what consumers accomplish from using the technology (i.e., transactions and/or customer service).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Understanding Human Behaviour through Reductionist Approach Ã¢â¬Å"The only way to understand Human Behaviour is to take a Reductionist approach.Ã¢â¬ Critically discuss with reference to relevant seminal and contemporary literature in psychology. Reductionism can be defined as being the idea that a complex system, such as human behaviour, is nothing more than the sum of its parts and that a description of the system can be reduced to descriptions of the individual components. Many of the main approaches in psychology tend to take a reductionist approach when trying to explain their understanding of human behaviour, including the cognitive approach which uses machine mechanism (using the analogy of machines and their most simple components) to explain human behaviour, such as Berkowitz (1993). The behaviourist approach also tends to be reductionist in how it tries to explain human behaviour, usually reducing behaviour down to simply environmental factors such as reinforcement and punishment. Perhaps the most reductionist approach in psychology however is the biological approach. The biological approach takes a more scientific approach to explaining human behaviour and puts it mainly down to our biology, for example, Lacourse, Boivin, Brendgen et al. (2014) explained that the results from their research suggested that a toddlerÃ¢â¬â¢s aggression is strongly associated with genetic factors. Many psychologists would agree that Ã¢â¬Å"The only way to understand Human Behaviour is to take a Reductionist approachÃ¢â¬ for example, Hull (2002) who stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Reductionism at its most extreme asserts that the only level worth investigating is the lowest technologically feasible level. All else is a waste of time.Ã¢â¬ Given the fact that scientists who use more reductionist approaches to understanding human behaviour tend to get the most grant money for their research, publish the most papers and also tend to make the most scientific advances within psychology, this may be true. However, other psychologists believe that the lower states involved in reductionism do not capture the necessary coherence of the rationalisation relation at the higher level and are known as being anti-reductionist. Biological psychologists explain human behaviour by trying to relate it to the functioning of the brain and the nervous system, relating it to the role of genetic influences and also by putting it down to chemical processes in the brain. These are all reductionist ways to explaining human behaviour due to the fact that, apart from physics, they are the lowest level of explaining behaviour. A prime example of a reductionist explanation to understanding human behaviour such as aggression is through genetics. This type of biological reductionism reduces aggressive behaviour in an individual down to the role of genetic influence, for example Dilalla (2002) concluded from her review on the role of genetics on aggression that there is a Ã¢â¬Å"growing body of evidence on the genetic effects on aggressionÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"the majority of twin and adoption studies on antisocial behaviour in children suggest that genetic effects are important influencesÃ¢â¬ suggesting that aggressive beh aviour is mainly due to the genetic make-up of an individual. This explanation of aggressive human behaviour is solely reductionist and fails to take into account any environmental and cultural factors. The social approach to psychology however, would explain this behaviour through Ã¢â¬Å"The Social Learning TheoryÃ¢â¬ by Bandura (1978), putting aggressive behaviour of a child down to factors such as imitation. Bushman Huesmann (2006) explored aggression in both children and adults, and found that exposure to violence led to participants becoming more aggressive, suggesting that human behaviour such as aggression can be adopted through imitation, leading one to believe that reductionist approaches to human behaviour, such as the biological approach isnÃ¢â¬â¢t taking every factor into account that could contribute towards an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Reducing human behaviour down to lower levels of psychology that can be studied is useful in trying to understand how things work. Poldrack Wagner (2008) used Atinkson ShiffrinÃ¢â¬â¢s (1968) multi-store model of memory in order to assess long-term and short-term memory. This cognitive approach to understanding human behaviour, suggested that remembering information over either the long-term or short-term was due to how we process this information internally. Reducing this behaviour down to a simple component of the individual means that, for example if an individual has long-term memory loss, it is easier to target one specific part of the brain responsible for this, thus easier to treat. However, even though this is a useful aspect of reductionist explanations of human behaviour, some psychologists, such as Hull, would argue that these explanations offer only a simple solution to a much more complicated problem. Depression, for example, according to the biological approach shoul d be treated with anti-depressants as biological psychologists such as Carlson (2005) believe that depression is due to neurotransmitters in the brain. However, social psychologists such as Beattie (2005), who examined the social causes of depression, would say that this is overlooking the real problem which could be issues such as problems within the family. This is a fundamental problem with the reductionist approach to understanding human behaviour; it tends to ignore social and environmental factors that may also contribute towards behaviour and hence when it comes to applying reductionist approaches to everyday life and having implications for human behaviour, the treatments may not be as reliable as they could be. Although there are arguments for Ã¢â¬Å"The only way to understand Human Behaviour is to take a Reductionist approachÃ¢â¬ there are a lot more anti-reductionist arguments. Anti-reductionist psychologists such as Hull Regenmortel (2002) refer to reductionism in explaining human behaviour as Ã¢â¬Å"as successful as Reductionism has been, it is seriously inadequate and must be supplemented with a more holistic science.Ã¢â¬ Emotion, for example, is ignored by reductionist explanations due to the fact that it is seen as impossible that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions can be explained through lower levels of psychology, such as neurotransmitters. Thus, factors such as emotion can only be truly explained by less reductionist approaches such as an individual is happy due to the environment that surrounds them, not due to biological factors. A further approach to understanding human behaviour is taking into account the role of the environment. Reductionist biological approaches do not consider the environment when explaining human behaviour, however there is a lot of research suggesting that although an individual is born with certain biological traits, such as genes, environmental factors, for example an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing and people they are exposed to predominately shapes an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour further. However, taking an environmental approach to understanding human behaviour is also reductionist, but psychologists specialising in this area such as Brent are starting to integrate the small parts into the whole. In 1995, Brent assessed risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behaviour and stressed the importance of environmental factors such as family, as well as biological factors on these risk factors. Taking a more holistic approach like Brent (2005) instead of a reductionist approach to understanding human behaviour tends to take many factors into account instead of just reducing an explanation down to its simplest form, thus can lead people to believe that a more holistic approach to understanding human behaviour is a lot more valid and reliable as, for example, when treating an individual of an illness such as depression, not only will the biological aspect of the illness be treated with anti-depressants, but the social aspect of the illness can also be treated with a form of counselling. Using a reductionist approach to understanding human behaviour can be seen to be not so useful when trying to explain individual factors due to the fact that reductionist explanations, although they are reduced to the lowest levels of psychology and thus are in the simplest form, generalise behaviour to a target population. Maguire, Gadian, Johnsrude et al. (2000) found that the amount of time spent as a London taxi driver positively correlated with the volume in the posterior hippocampus and from this, suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"the posterior hippocampus stores a spatial representation of the environment and can expand regionally to accommodate.Ã¢â¬ Here, Maguire et al (2000) have generalised their study of male, London taxi drivers to the population as a whole. Every individual is unique and so it would not be right to generalise these findings to everyone as the same behaviour in people may be due to different explanations, such as our biology and the environment. In conclusion reductionist approaches to understanding human behaviour can be seen to have led to further scientific advances within psychology due to the fact that reductionist approaches make it easier to find the cause of human behaviour, meaning that it is then easier to treat, by reducing the explanation down to its simplest form. However, as discussed, there are many problems and critiques of the reductionist approach to understanding human behaviour, with the main problem being that the reductionist approaches leave out vital factors such as the environment and social factors when explaining behaviour, thus by using a reductionist explanation it does not give a full explanation for a complex subject such as human behaviour, whereas taking a more holistic approach such as a humanist approach, takes many different factors into account. Therefore, reductionist explanations, is limited when it comes to understanding and explaining human behaviour. Samantha Carlisle
Oh God Help Me Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The poem For Deliverance from a Fever is a beautiful poem by Anne Bradstreet. The use of rhyme and rhythm throughout this poem depicts to me that Anne had an exceptional understanding of poetry and how to write poetry. Anne uses a great array of words to make the poem more appealing to not only the reader but also herself. This finely written poem portrays to me that Anne was a very spiritual women but maybe had doubts about everything going on around her. The course of this paper will iterate what the poem For Deliverance from a Fever by Anne Bradstreet means to me. I believe that Anne BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose in writing this poem was not for the entertainment of readers, but for her to escape the oppression of women in the Puritan times. My reasoning behind this hypothesis being that this whole poem is just a prayer to God to rid her of the sickness, which ailed her. Why would Anne Bradstreet write this poem? I believe that Anne was writing this poetry as a rebellious effort to illustrate that women are just as talented as men, if not more talented. Every other line of this poem is a rhyme, if Anne was just writing her prayer down for her pleasure I believe she would have not put so much time and effort into finding the Ã¢â¬Å"perfect wordÃ¢â¬ to rhyme with the previous line, if she had not meant this poem to be a demonstration that women can and will become un-oppressed one day. I believe one main purpose of this poem to show women that they should be able to express their ideas and feelings. This poem is not only a prayer to God to heal her unhealthy body, but it is thanking God for helping her in the past. In lines twenty-one and twenty-two, Anne writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou heardÃ¢â¬â¢st, Thy rod Thou didst remove And spared my body frailÃ¢â¬ (Bradstreet 277), These two lines, among other Anne Bradstreet poems, tells me that Anne was not a selfish women, she knew that she must thank God for what he has done for her in order for him to help her again. Anne was a very considerate person she was always looking out for others, mainly her children and husband. Toward the end this poem Anne Bradstreet is giving glory to God. She is thanking him for not only curing her illness at that time, but also thanking him for helping her with everything else that goes on in her life.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Ã Ã Ã This essay has chosen to study the largest Christian denomination's attitude toward euthanasia, in order to determine the basic Christian position in the current debate on euthanasia. It is interesting to note that, even within one Christian church like this, there are a host of considerations on the euthanasia question. The rights and values pertaining to the human person occupy an important place among the questions discussed throughout the world today. In this regard, the largest Christian denomination, the Catholic Church, solemnly reaffirmed the lofty dignity of the human person, and in a special way his or her right to life. The Second Vatican Council therefore condemned crimes against life "such as any type of murder, genocide, abortion, euthanasia, or willful suicide" (Pastoral) The progress of medical science in recent years has brought to the fore new aspects of the question of euthanasia, and these aspects, in the Church's view, call for further elucidation on the ethical level. In modern society, in which even the fundamental values of human life are often called into question, cultural change exercises an influence upon the way of looking at suffering and death; moreover, medicine has increased its capacity to cure and to prolong life in particular circumstances, which sometime give rise to moral problems. Thus people living in this situation experience no little anxiety about the meaning of advanced old age and death. They also begin to wonder whether they have the right to obtain for themselves or their fellowmen an "easy death," which would shorten suffering and which seems to them more in harmony with human dignity. Ã The considerations set forth here, concern in the first place all those who place their faith and hope in Christ, who, through His life, death and resurrection, has given a new meaning to existence and especially to the death of the Christian, as St. Paul says: "If we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord" (Rom. 14:8; cf. Phil. 1:20). As for those who profess other religions, many will agree with us that faith in God the Creator, Provider and Lord of life--if they share this belief--confers a lofty dignity upon every human person and guarantees respect for him or her. Ã Human life is the basis of all goods, and is the necessary source and condition of every human activity and of all society.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Joseph Joseph was born in the royal line of King David, but in his time the descendents of David no longer held power or wealth. He left his ancestral home of Bethlehem in Judea to become a builder and carpenter in the town of Nazareth in Galilee. There he met Mary and became engaged to her. When she became pregnant before their marriage, he was uncertain as to what he should do. He finally decided to break off the engagement in accordance to the Law; but do to so quietly, so that she would not be subjected to charges of adultery and quite possibly a death sentence. However, an angel appeared to him in a dream and explained to him that God Himself was the father of Mary's child, and that Joseph should not be afraid to marry her. Joseph accepted the angel's message and the will of God and married Mary. After Mary's son was born, Joseph named him Jesus, as he and Mary had been told by the angel. He raised Jesus as his own son, and likely trained him in carpentry. The Gospels make no mention of Joseph during Jesus' adulthood, and so it is likely that he died before Jesus' ministry began. By marrying Mary, despite her pregnancy, and by accepting and naming Jesus, Joseph became Jesus' father in the eyes of the Law; and by raising Jesus and caring for Him, he became his father in all ways but one. Therefore, while God is truly the Father of Jesus, Joseph can also be called His father. The Gospels call Joseph a "just" and "righteous" man, and his righteousness can be shown in his acceptance of God's will, despite inconvenience and public scandal; the care he showed to his wife and Son; and his
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Consumer Behavior: Singapore and desire for luxury: Singapore is among the top 10 destinations for luxury brands worldwide (69% of all usury retailers present). Luxury stores are present everywhere in the city more particularly In Orchard Road and shopping centers. Between 2006 and 2010, sales of luxury goods grew by 18% 1. Even if the sales have slowed down during the scrolls of 2009, they rose again In 2010 The luxury goods become more and more popular whatsoever watches, clothes or handbags.One of the mall reasons of this trend Is the growth of high-income households. The annual disposable incomes above US $75,000 increased by 4% between 2006 and 2010, so more Singapore are able to afford luxury goods. On the other hand their awareness to luxury brands (especially European ones) increased significantly. Luxury brands take more and more importance in lifestyle magazines and all others advertising mediums. We know that usually Asian people attach importance to the image. When they b uy a product they think about the image returned by this product.Many business men and women, with high Incomes, deal with foreign clients; they want to present a groomed Image. That Is the reason why they are willing to buy luxury products. Other high-income earners In Singapore are the experts. They tend to buy luxury goods and then Influence the local trends and the way Singapore see luxury products. This desire to own luxury brands coupled to high incomes and advertising presence in Medias will maintain and increase the demand for luxury brands. Luxury companies expected to benefit from important sales over the forecast period.However, growth of luxury goods seems not be able to affect non-luxury products, because most Singapore are still prudent with their spending. Why Singapore prefer global brands instead of local brands? 2 Ã¢â¬Å"Rider's digest trusted brand survey 2008Ã¢â¬ , 23 April 2011, My Paper According to the newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"My PaperÃ¢â¬ market survey, 26% of S ingapore favor local brands (so 74% favor global brands)2. Even if there are many strong local brands such as Tiger or Singapore Airlines the support of home- growth brands Is very low.So we will try to understand why Singapore have a preference for global brands instead of local brands. The mall reasons that come In mind are that Singapore attach a lot of Importance to their Image. The 2 notions of status and belonging are key points of the Asians consumer behavior. Singapore is a modern society Tanat Keeps peep collectivist relations slantingly. The Singapore society is highly, individuals are strongly sensible of their place thin the group, institution or society as a whole, and their attitude, dress and speech corresponding to their status.They are extremely fussy about the need to keep their dignity. They attach great attention to the choice of products; prices, brand and presentation should reflect its own social status. As to personal appearance, color, material and style of clothing, they must match the social status that defines the age, sex, occupationÃ¢â¬ ¦ Singapore wear luxury goods show to others that you are part of high class. The quality of the product has less importance than the image that the brand will reflect. Awaken has the opposite positioning in Singapore.Belonging It is essential for Asian people to be accepted by his peers and the fear of rejection, exclusion, is intense, creating a need to always be part of the trendy and fashionable group. Singapore have a different approach of buying luxury goods compare to westerns people. They buy this kind of product to be a part of a group, because the trend is to buy western fashion products. It is a consequence of the westernizes. PERSONAL We can compare the Moscow pyramid of the western people and the one of Asian people.It appears that personal need which is very strong in western societies sonnets exist in Asians societies. Status Self-actualization SOCIAL Admiration Affiliation Belongin g Prestige Safety PHYSICAL Physiological The statement that Singapore prefer global brands can be contradicted by the fact that there are only a few Singapore brands, so we have the feeling that Singapore do not support their own brands. But in many industries and especially in the fashion industry, local brands suffer from the comparison with global brands.For the case of Awaken it is obvious that the brand is subjected to this specific consumer behavior. But in an other hand Awaken achieved to succeed n Hong Kong, a very similar market than Singapore. We can explain this by many facts. First Awaken is not seen as a local brand in Hong Kong, they overcame the Asian consumer behavior difficulties. We will now explain what the main defaults of the brand which prevent Awaken to succeed in Singapore. Brand equity & Obstacles 10 netter unreason ten salmonella's customer Attlee towards Awaken, lets study the key components of Awakener's brand equity.Thanks to the brand equity definition, 3 keys have to be taken in considerations: Ã¢â¬Å"The differential effectÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"the brand knowledgeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the consumer response to marketingÃ¢â¬ . In the luxury market, the differentiation is based on what the brand reflects to the costumer and less on what the product is. Awaken is trying to differentiate himself from his competitors on the product characteristics (handmade, crocodile skinÃ¢â¬ ¦ ). The Awakener's differentiation strategy is not appropriate with the luxury market where the differentiation is done through the brand image since the quality is implicit.Therefore there is a lack into the Awakener's brand equity. Since the three keys of the brand equity are pretty linked, the brand knowledge is weakened such as the consumer response to marketing. In order to give some recommendations to Awaken, it's relevant to focus on the sources of brand equity in order to understand what goes wrong with Awaken. There are three sources of brand equity that are : brand association, brand awareness and brand accessibility The brand awareness is the extent for a customer to recognize a brand and its elements.Awaken does not have a lot of brand awareness. Indeed, as our opinion poll pinpointed only 21% of the people do know that the brand exists. Moreover only 8% of the people recognized the brand logo and 59% did not really like it. Therefore it's hard to create a favorable attitude toward the brand and receptiveness to the message. The accessibility of the shops reinforces the brand awareness. Accessibility is how easy it is or how easy it seems to be, for customers to interact with and to purchase the brand.In the case of Awaken this component of the brand equity is well done since the number of point of sales correspond to such a product Ã¢â¬ËE: one or two maximum in each principle market. This kind of strategy with a very exclusive distribution channel is very efficient especially in the luxury business. However the flags ships are a b it less luxurious and with less mantra than the other brands. For all those reasons, even if the accessibility is a drawback and could be improved. The last source of brand equity is the brand association. Brand association is relative to past experience between the customer and the brand.Product use and advertisement are the basis of this concept. As Awaken is not wildly spread in Singapore and does not do any advertisement, the costumer cannot easily associate the brand to anything. According to our opinion poll, it's clear that a large majority (79%) of the costumers does not have any mental association for this brand since they don't know the brand. For those that know the brand (21%) the mental map is as follow: As we can see on the mental map ( appendices B) all the associations that are made with the brand are very material and none is related to brand universe, Which is a basic feature in the luxury market.Now lets consider the uniqueness of the selling proposition that is Ã ¢â¬ fashionable, handmade and high quality crocodile product that last for lifeÃ¢â¬ . This positioning is quiet unique and in one hand can be a compelling reason to buy product from the brand but in the other hand in this market it's debatable whether this proposition is efficient. Indeed, the kind of costumer that buy products for the quality are not focus on fashion and are more likely to appreciate very classic model with a style that will last over the years.Last but not least the colors are too flashy for such a proposition ii a 30 years old woman can appreciate a pink purse but will it be ten same when seen Is pyramid of Awaken. Considering all tense International we can Dull As it appears on the pyramid some part of the pyramid are missing. Therefore we can conclude that the brand has not built a brand image yet. In Singapore their target market is very narrow. Indeed they target people with high incomes that are only looking for quality and don't care about consideratio ns such as: the image that is shown by the product.In Singapore people buy product to be part of a group and the rich people group like to buy European brands. Therefore the target market is very narrow. Recommendations Awakener's marketing strategy is not efficient. Gingersnap's market is a particularly one, as we pointed out in our first part. We do really think that Awaken should first redefine the target. The target is not clear, so the positioning does not match with the target expectations. So the positioning should be created for this specific target. Now, the positioning is focus on the product characteristics.But in a luxury market customers are less likely to buy a product for rational reasons (product's characteristics) than irrational ones (brand universe). So the key points on which Awaken should work salience, imagery, feelings and resonance, that is to say the missing points of the CUBE pyramid. Nowadays Awaken focus only on the product and the quality, they should de velop their brand. The brand is not valuable in Singapore. They do really have to work on the brand equity. The salience can be improved by the communications. As we mentioned Awaken do not use the media and either did not do any advertisements.So our recommendations to fix that would be to launch a communication campaign into specialized Medias, such as fashion magazines (Vogue, EllÃ¢â¬ ¦ ). We could also imagine exposing Awaken handbags in window-store in luxury hotel halls The biggest obstacle concerning the imagery is that Awaken is not seen as an international luxury brand. As explained before Singapore are more willing to buy global brands products instead of local rand's especially in the luxury market. Awaken cannot hide its Singapore origin, but the can make the customers forget about it.For instance they should hire western models instead of Asian ones and do brand endorsement with international stars which are particularly famous in Singapore. It will also show that the brand is well- known abroad. According to our opinion poll Awaken has no dominant Ã¢â¬Å"feelingÃ¢â¬ . They should develop the image of the brand so that they would be able to make the customer have specific feelings when they buy a handbag. The main feelings that must be developed are the social approval feeling that is common to almost all luxury brand and the security feeling to differentiate itself from its competitors.For instance they could associate themselves with a very famous international luxury watch company (as Jaeger Lecture or Role) to make crocodile skin bracelet. Consumer will associate the feelings of security and social approval of the watch brand with Awaken. And it will increase the international image of Awaken. The last feeling that Awaken should work on is the resonance. They should work on the brand universe to increase customer loyalty. Entering Into a Awaken snoop NAS to De a unlike experience. I nee should increase their shop standards.