Thursday, October 31, 2019

Reflective Practice Statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Reflective Practice Statement - Essay Example DeFillippi believe that reflection is crucial to learning because it helps to convert "convert tacit experience into explicit knowledge" (p.6). Reflective practise, as a concept of learning, was introduced into several professions in the 1980s. The rationale behind it is that by thinking about things that have happened to us, in a different light, we gain more knowledge and a better perspective, which enable us to take some kind of action. It is therefore seen as an important process by which professionals "learn from experience in order to understand and better develop their practice" (Jasper, 2003, p.2). The concept of learning from reflection was a product of the work of several educational theorists; one important figure in this regard is Dewey (1938) who argued that 'we learn by doing and realising what came out of what we did'. However, this theory has seen severally modified and developed by contemporary theorist. One of such is the 'experiential learning theory' developed by Kolb in the 1980s, where he drew our attention to the fact that, when we attempt to learn from something that has already happened to us, we ne ed to recall our observation of the events and then reflect on the observation in some way (p.3). This theory was the perhaps the first to demonstrate the cognitive process of learning by particularly expressing the importance of critical reflection in learning. This theory stressed the fact that the main thrust of learning efforts lies in the manner in which we process experience and a major part of this, is our ability to critically reflect on experiences. Learning was described to occur in a cycle that "begins with experience, continues with reflection and later leads to action, which itself becomes a concrete experience for reflection" (Kelly, 2005). Kolb's work further refined the concept of reflection, as it applies to learning, and divided it into two separate learning activities, which he referred to as perceiving and processing (Algonquin, 1996). The perceiving stage is when the actual learning takes place, while processing is when such learning is re-appraised in the light of previous experiences. A third stage called 'Abstract Conceptualization', where it is believed that we try to find answers to the questions raised during the critical reflection stage. In this attempt, we make generalizations, draw conclusions and form hypotheses about the experiences; and the fourth stage 'Active Experimentation', where we try these hypotheses out, were further proposed (Kelly, 2005; Algonquin, 1996). In the words of Kolb, in the Abstract Conceptualization phase, "learning involves using logic and ideas, rather than feelings to understand problems or situations. Typically, we would rely on systematic planning and develop theories and i deas to solve problems." While in Active Experimentation, "Learning in this stage takes an active form - experimenting with, influencing or changing situations. We would take a practical approach and be concerned with what really works..." (Algonquin, 1996). Besides the experiential learning theory, the motivational theories also have great implications for reflection and learning. The importance and impact of motivation on human actions was first highlighted by the research now popularly known as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. In the

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Kuwait Liberation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Kuwait Liberation - Research Paper Example Iraq’s invasion in Kuwait turned the Middle East into a war zone. This paper intends to discuss the history of Iraq’s invasion, and the criminal and political activities that occurred during the whole phase of war. MLA referencing style has been used properly, and the report is summarized in a concluding paragraph. Iraq had been in war with Iran, before invasion in Kuwait. The Iran-Iraq war, that spread over eight years, was devastating for Iraq. At the launch of war, Iraq had ample hard currency reserves; but at the end of war, the Iraqi nation was in debt of $80 billion (Klein). Iraq had to pay beck this debt to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile, Kuwait had been mounting up 900 square miles of Iraqi land, by moving its border forward with Iraq northward. This moving forward of Kuwait’s border was irreversible. Kuwait gained access to Rumaila oil reserve and Iraqi oil field, by using drilling equipment of the Santa Fe Drilling Corporation of Alhambra, Californi a. Kuwait also became a reason of dropping down of Iraqi oil prices. Iraq’s main source of earning was petroleum whose price kept on fluctuating due to international production of petroleum. Kuwait tended to undermine OPEC quotas by increasing its oil production under the guidance of the United States. Due to this, the price of Iraqi oil went down from $28 per barrel to $11 per barrel (Klein), which damaged Iraq’s economy greatly. Iraq appealed to Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries to stick to the OPEC production levels. Iraq’s appeals were met by USA’s navy buildup in the Persian Gulf. Still, Kuwait continued to increase its oil production, which harmed not only Iraq’s economy but also its own. Kuwait refused to return Iraq’s territory that it had accumulated during the Iraq-Iran war; rejected the production quotas; refused to stop driving oil from Rumaila oil reserve and selling it at low prices; and, rejected the idea of relinqu ishing Iraq’s debt. All these events raised tension between the two countries, finally leading to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. However, the United Nations protested against Iraq’s invasion, and instructed Iraq to withdraw its forces from Kuwait (Hussein, Ramadan & Aziz 85). On August 6, 1990, four days after the invasion had occurred, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution (known as Resolution 661 of 1990), that imposed wide-ranging sanctions on Iraq, and created a committee that supervised those sanctions and made sure that Iraq withdrew its forces from Kuwait. The resolution showed concern with the heavy loss of lives in Kuwait due to Iraq’s invasion; and, showed determination to put Iraq’s invasion to an end, liberating Kuwait and its sovereignty, self-government, and territorial integrity. The United Nations Security Council passed 12 resolutions, starting from August 6, 1990 till November 29, 1990. The last res olution was Resolution 678 (1990) which stated that, in case Iraq fails to comply with the resolution regarding withdrawal of its forces from Kuwait by January 15, 1991, this would result in authorization of all member states in support of Kuwait to force Iraq to put an end of invasion, and to restore peace in the Middle East. USA never seriously protested with high-profile military demonstrations at the beginning of Iraq’s invasion, and kept a public silence. USA kept on issuing public statements stressing the point that it had no defense

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Examining The Aspects Of Social Work Practices Social Work Essay

Examining The Aspects Of Social Work Practices Social Work Essay The aspect of social work practice I feel most difficult to perform is the gerontological social work. This paper would firstly describe the context of social work practice with old people. After that, I would exam the reasons preventing me from effectively conducting helping process by evaluating my attitudes, emotions and experiences as well as by reviewing professional literature on social work practice with old people. In the end, I will shape a personal plan on how to address this weakness in the future. There is a universal folk saying that everyone wishes to live a good long life, but no one wishes for old age. Although in virtually every helping process attempt, social workers bring their own emotional or cognitive influences to intervention, I feel especially difficult to perform in the interventions dealing with older adults. With the development of medical and health care and with the baby boomer generations entering into their old years, the aging of population in the twenty-first century has become increasingly concerned by more and more people. In responding to the drastic transformation of social institutions such as elderly social service and health-care system, the social work practice with old people turns out into one of the most popular social work aspect today. Apart from the well-known nursing homes and hospital, there are other settings for gerontological social work as well. Geriatric care management, community social service agencies, adult day health care, legal services ¼Ã…’home health-care agencies , macro settings for gerontological social workers and community planning also play their active roles in serving the older adult in a variety of ways. The gerontologiacal social work, which needs high level of self-awareness, commitment and professional skills, is somehow a complex mission for us to carry. Many social workers admit that social work practice with old people is both challenged and exciting for the reason that, at one hand, it reminds of feelings about death, aging of our family and ones own attitudes toward helping the disadvantaged and vulnerable old adults; on the other hand, it also presents joys and delightful pictures and makes us think more about ourselves. Root of difficulty Review own personal factors Among all the factors that influence my ability to perform this particular area, the subtle effects of my social and personal massages and the counter-transference feelings of old people would be matters of cardinal significance. Furthermore, I also affected by my characteristics and cognition to certain kind of old people. Stereotypes. When I was a child I always heard people saying that old people are vulnerable and need help, and older adults are less valuable as human beings because they have to rely on their children. At home, I was asked to behave properly and not offend grandparents; otherwise I would get scolds and punishment. While at school, I was required to help older people for that they have trouble getting around. These stereotypes toward elderly are usually negative for me and imply an attitude or unintentional message that old people are hard to take care of, stubborn, old-fashioned and unpleasant. Consequently, I always feel that I cannot handle the relationship with older people well and they will not like me. I feel uncomfortable in front of many of my eldership because I do not know how to keep conversations going with my poor eloquence and interpersonal skills. Even though I understand ageism is a destructive social justification when I grow older, I still cannot change the comments I once made on aging and I am a little bit afraid of old people to some extent. Personal emotion factors. I am by nature a sentimental and emotional person from an early age. My grandma passed away when I was in primary school. She left me even before seeing my admission into university and engagement with my fiancà ©. I always think that if she could see these, she would be very pleased and also, I would be the most delight person in the world. She always lived a difficult life when she was young and did not enjoy much in her late years. Sometimes all my family members would feel guilty for missing the chance to treat her well before she left us. As a consequence, when facing the dying older people, especially female elderly suffered from chronic disease or cancer, I inevitably feel urgent to save them and so scared to face the truth that they will eventually die someday. I doubt myself about what I can do for them and I am so scared that they will leave me before I can do anything right or helpful. In fact, that is one of the most difficult challenges in social work practice for me. Real understanding of old people. As a social worker, I appreciate that getting old does not inevitably mean the loss of intelligence, memory and cognitive functioning. I also understand that developing a level of understanding is necessary from a social worker standpoint, and it helps me to anticipate client needs and perform an ongoing self-critique in order to improve and grow my helping process. However, many times I feel I am not able to truly understand them and consider things from their perspective of views as I never experienced true aging. Many decisions I made somehow reflect my own perception of the situation such as to decide whether an old adult should stay in own home or hospital, or to conclude that an older person is showing poor judgment about financial decisions. Furthermore, it would be even harder to perform my role as a social worker when a balance between the opinions of the older adult himself, his family and the social worker need to be achieved. This obstacl e prevents me from behaving more successfully at building a sustainable relationship with elderly clients and I simply do the work and move on. When everything needs more time and patience. With the tight time schedule and many objectives to be accomplish, sometimes a social worker needs to be in a hurry to push on the intervention process. And some other times even if I have explained many times, it is still necessary to have extended periods describing complicated appointments to older clients. I always tend to speed it up although in that case, in order to attain my goal I should slow down to give them more time to think about the process. Lack of patience would be another problem preventing me from effectively working with elderly or even almost every aspect of social work practice. Reviewing the professional literature Many social workers admit that, even though both meaningful and satisfactory, working with elderly people can need a high level of self-awareness and self-discipline. The truth that everyone must eventually face the developmental stage of aging and death for themselves and their families may contribute to the anxiety and complexity of the helping process, as social work practice in the aspects of domestic violence or drug abuse may not personally affect worker. This can impact workers with older clients on both a conscious and subconscious level. Ageism and Death Anxiety. In most cultures around the world, particularly the Chinese culture, people feel uncomfortable when deal with death or anything related to death. From an early age, children are asked to avoid to talking death and dying, and to replace the word death with phrases such as passed on, or gone on to another world. Therefore, the social workers dealt with older people may require more self-control and comfort on the acknowledging the real pain caused by the loss of human life of family and friends. The anxiety of aging and dying process on ones own work, combined with generally indisposed experiences about the proximity of death surrounding older adults, bring about some social workers avoiding work with the aging. According to the Hong Kong Social Workers Registration Broads data gathered from its members about their areas of practice, despite older adults make up about 12.8 percent of Hong Kong population, less than 6 percent of social worker identify gerontological social work as their field of practice, which compared to nearly 30 percent for mental health. Countertransference. The reactions, real, and unreal, to a certain individual can occur irrespective of origin and can be based on ones own past or present experiences or characteristics. Counter transference can be described as social workers reactions involve feelings, wishes, and unconscious defensive patterns onto the client. In the professional relationship with old people, a social worker may place negative feelings or dislikes of older persons onto the client, which restrict his willingness (no matter consciously or unconsciously) to continue investigating and result in impatience or intolerance of the aging. On the other side, old clients who evoke images from ones past such as parents, grandparents or other elderly family members can make process even more arduous to advance as a result of destructive sympathy and the need to save an older person. The Independence/ dependence fight. Old people want to maintain their independence to make decisions while the social worker commits to promote self-determination and dignity of the individual. But things are not that simple. When an elderly claims for increasingly supporting service and experiences growing difficulties to maintain independence on his own, it will be confrontational to live up to the elderly expectations. McInnis-Dittrich (2008) states A worker can appreciate the desperate efforts on the part of an older adult to stay in his or her own home. Yet when an older adult is struggling with stairs or a deteriorating neighborhood, and difficulties in completing the simple activities of daily living challenge the feasibility of that effort, professional and personal dilemmas abound. This is a good example to understand that sustaining independence in the gerontological social work is a critical goal which has no simple good answer. Private functions become public business. Discussing the topic such as an old womans bladder and bowel functions or an older mans maintaining an erection or urinating with clients may cause awkward and uncomfortable resistance when social workers and other helping professional get involved. Therefore, sometimes it is important to be sensitive to the deeply personal nature when social workers try to acquire necessary comprehension of an older adults health conditions. A better understanding of interpersonal skills and psychosocial adjustment to aging would be helpful and essential. Personal plan to address this weakness Overcome stereotype influence First of all, I hope that from now on I will pay more attention to those featuring active, healthy, productive, and successful older persons so that I will develop a balanced understanding about aging and elderly. Aging is not painful and debilitating. Many wise, gracious, and humorous elderly have made admirable contribution to the world and have shown remarkable strength to achieve a positive as well as enthusiastic life. Secondly, another important thing for me is to keep the lines of communication open with older adults. If I can open my heart to communicate, they will share more with me. The stronger relationship between us will help me cope better with the stereotype challenges. Last but not least, in my future helping process I will often ask myself: does it reinforce stereotypes again? I should start from every thing in daily life to alter the attitude that hinders my ability to face the normal changes of aging. Make a change in attitude is not easy, but I will try my best to drive myself on the right direction. Awareness and Introspection Awareness of the emotional influence is the first and the essential key to solve my problem. How well do I manage my own anxiety with this clients situations should be my first concern. I will always remind myself that do not be affected by my experience and differentiate my experience of losing a family member from the intervention my client. That will help me to distinguish between the older peoples need and my own need and, to remain focused on the clients need. Furthermore, I could seek help from colleagues and supervisors as well. By discussing the situations with them, I can expose and explore my own feelings and get advices in order to effectively facilitate help process. To truly understand elderly Above all, I will try to get in touch more with old people to truly feel their emotional and cognitive problems, as well as to open my heart and listen to them. Maybe I can join them more in their music, art activities in communities. Aging does not necessarily mean the loss of memory and cognitive capacities, and I will try to explain the information in a variety of ways so that we can build understanding relationship. Moreover, reading more books about the psychological problems of the elderly would be really useful to analyze their psychological changes and behavior patterns. Equipped with a better look at the findings from professional social workers, I will more effectively comprehend the aging process the distinguishing features of elderly. Finally, I should learn from experienced social workers to get more suggestions when I feel difficult to continue. For one thing, they can improve my ways of carrying intervention by pointing out my mistakes. For another, they can help me understand and get the most from their strength and weakness by providing convenient and professional advice.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Racism Essay -- Racial Relations, White

"The first, and perhaps most crucial, fear is that of facing the fact that some of what we white people have is unearned. It's a truism that we don't really make it on our own; we all have plenty of help to achieve whatever we achieve." (Jensen, 1) When reflecting on this statement you start to see that what Jensen is telling us is very true. Since born, and while growing up, many white people have been "handed" everything needed to succeed and receive the necessary tools and help to achieve anything. We don't realize this because many of us are continually congratulated on the success actually fostered through the people who love and care for us. What people need to realize is that there are people who are not born into these situations, and are continually fighting to get away from their abusive families that do not support them. "A second fear is crasser: White people's fear of losing what we have -- literally the fear of losing things we own if at some point the economic. political, and social systems in which we live become more just and equitable." (Jensen, 1) Everyone fears losing something that they are accustomed to, whether it be material goods, social status, or power. People are often affected psychologically when they lose something, and for whites, it would make them feel less superior than other races if they did lose something. Some whites feel that they lose power when other races break through barriers and become more powerful than they are. Jensen reaffirms the idea that people are born into a society where "affluence" and "material comfort" will obviously affect how someone feels and reacts to losing whatever they have lost. "A third fear involves a slightly different scenario -- a world in which ... ...enating to people of color: people of color's identities, experiences, and ways of communicating are often outside the very restricted language and the very limited representations of people like them in the stories they read." (Marrero, 10) Marrero brings up a very interesting point when showing the reader that people are sometimes limited in ways of communicating because of the classroom setting they are surrounded with. When you reflect on how many teachers use "dominant paradigms" in their teachings, you begin to realize that students voices are inherently constrained. You then begin to ask yourself the scary questions of "how many people have already been restricted from using their own voice and how many continue to be in this situation today?" People are unable to develop a broader world view unless we are able to listen to how other people communicate.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Organ Selling

Name Term paper for Health Economics, Econ 339 Kidney for Sale: Is the Idea Legal, Ethical, or Economically Sound? Abstract: Each year thousands of people die while waiting for a kidney transplant. A market for kidney sales is currently illegal in nearly every country. This paper addresses the legal and ethical issues, as well as the economic effects that a legal market would create. The following aspects of such a market were explored: the ethical pros and cons; the current price ceiling for a legal kidney; the current supply and demand of donor kidneys; the fair market price; and the effect on supply and demand in a legalized market. The conclusion is that if paying a living donor can be made legal and as ethically acceptable as other medical practices, kidney sales would be economically sound. Keywords: Market for Organs, Health Market Reform, Sales of Organs 1 Introduction Should organ sales be legalized in the United States? In today’s society, many people are suffering from diseases and conditions that require an organ transplant in order to survive. The transplant list for those in need of a new organ such as a kidney seems endless. Every day, nearly 74 people receive an organ transplant, while each day another 17 people die waiting for their transplant due to the lack of donated organs (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). Why is the demand so large? Why are there not enough? Should someone be able to sell his organ to a person in need? Is it legal, ethical or even economically sound to create a market for the sale of a kidney? What economic effects might there be if kidney sales were legalized? In the past few decades, immunosuppressive therapy and improved organ transplant expertise have increased the survival rate of kidney transplant patients (Ghod & Shekoufeh, 2006). For end stage renal disease (ESRD), transplantation, not kidney dialysis, has become the preferred treatment, because it provides the patient with an improved survival rate and a better quality of life (Ghod & Shekoufeh, 2006). In turn, the number of patients with ESRD being treated by dialysis and waiting for transplantation continues to outstrip the donor pool of kidneys (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). The donor pool consists primarily of deceased donors and some live donors. Statistics show that only about 30% of Americans register to donate their organs after death (Knapp, 2005). Over the past ten years, the number of deceased donor kidneys has not increased despite efforts by the National Kidney Foundation, State Drivers License promotions, and celebrity ad campaigns (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). In First World and middle-income countries, the demand for donor kidneys has increased. The populations of these countries live longer and typically develop ailments such as hypertension and diabetes caused by obesity 2|Page which contribute to kidney failure (The Economist, 2008). Fewer deaths from strokes, heart attacks and motor vehicle accidents have reduced the supply of cadaver donors (The Economist, 2008). Each year, the wait list grows longer. Figure 1 illustrates that the demand for kidney transplants has grown faster than the actual supply of kidneys. As of January 2007, there were nearly 95,000 people waiting for an organ transplant (Bramstedt, 2007). In a one year period, 7,000 people died waiting. Of those 7,000, approximately 4,000 were waiting for a kidney (Bramstedt, 2007). The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) predicts that by 2010, there will be nearly 100,000 people who will have to wait an average of ten years for a renal transplant (Bramstedt, 2007). If this trend continues, the supply of kidneys will never come close to meeting the demand. Given this dilemma, it is necessary to at least consider other options to procuring the needed kidneys. 2 Legalizing Kidney Sales? A controversial solution is to lift the ban on purchasing kidneys from live donors, or permitting some type of compensation to the families of cadaver donors (Castro, 2003). Currently, the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) deems the sale of organs unlawful and those who are found guilty of this act could be fined or sentenced to prison (Mayes, 2003). This ban on kidney sales in effect makes the maximum legal price for a kidney $0 (Cloutier, 2007). This is called a price ceiling. Figure 2 demonstrates that only 20,000 kidneys would be supplied through donation when the price is $0. However, 80,000 are demanded. This leaves a shortage of 60,000 kidneys which is the difference between the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied when the price is $0 (Cloutier, 2007). 3|Page Whether or not to reverse or amend this act has been a subject of great debate. There are numerous legal, ethical, and economic questions that are being argued by an array of experts. . 1 The arguments against legalization Opponents of kidney sales argue that this type of market would exploit the poor population (Erin & John, 2003). According to Nancy Scheper-Hughes, who is an anthropologist at the University of California, Berkeley, the demand for human organs would feed off the desperation of the poor who she believes would supply the majority of the organs (Hall, n. d. ). Scheper-Hughes states, â€Å"The organs are going one way. They’re going from poor people to rich people, from Third World to First World or to rich people in the Third World† (Hall, n. . ). Those who make this point believe it would be morally wrong for the wealthy to exploit the poverty of those who would supply the organs in a legalized market (Hall, n. d. ). A study of paid kidney donors in India showed that selling a kidney initially bettered their economic situation, but did not lead to a lifetime of economic benefit (Goyal, 2002). A second argument against legalizing kidney sales has been that the buying and selling of organs violates the dignity of the human person, and it treats the kidney like a commodity (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). Critics claim that the dignity of a human being is denied when his basic parts, such as kidneys, are sold even after he has died and no longer needs them (Castro, 2003). With respect to treating kidneys as a commodity, Scheper-Hughes who strongly objects to the legalization of kidney sales states, â€Å"It’s a question of whether you want to turn the body into a factory of spare parts that becomes simply comodified† (Hall, n. d. ). Although there are a variety of other opinions for not legalizing kidney sales, the two previously mentioned are the ones that are most frequently argued. |Page 2. 2 The arguments in favor of legalization Setting aside the major criticisms, some arguments in favor of kidney sales can be discussed. First, people have the autonomy or right to self-govern and make their own decisions about what is moral or ethical (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2008). Supporters of this opinion feel that it is not only ethical to sell a kidney, but a right because it is their body and their life. In his article, â€Å"Biotechnology, Ethics and Free Markets,† (2008) Julian Savulescu poses an interesting thought. He states, â€Å"But if you own anything, have a natural right to anything, it is surely your own body. Indeed the fact that we can give organs and parts of our body away implies that we own them. Giving implies ownership – if we can give, we can sell† (Salvulescu, 2008). People take all kinds of risks, including some for money. Some may choose risky jobs because they have determined that the money outweighs the risk (Erin & John, 2003). Others risk damaging their body for pleasure by participating in activities such as smoking or skydiving (Erin & John, 2003). Their activities would not be banned or judged. Friedman sums up the autonomy argument for permitting kidney sales. He states, â€Å"The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their own body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life† (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). A second reason that supports the legalization of kidney sales is financial incentives would lead to more donations, which in turn would save more lives. Dr. Arthur Matas proposes a plan in which donors would be able to sell a kidney. The government would set a price and the expenses would be paid for by the recipient’s health insurance, which would usually be Medicare (Perry, 2007). The sellers would be screened both medically and psychologically prior to the transplant. They would then be followed to determine the impact the sale had on their lives as well as their health (Perry, 2007). Mark J. Perry, a professor of economics and finance at 5|Page the University of Michigan, uses economics to show how a proposal such as Matas’s could increase the number of organs available for transplant. He explained that whenever there are shortages, market pricing is absent. Market pricing will reduce or eliminate shortages. Therefore, market pricing for kidneys would eliminate or reduce the shortage and save thousands of lives every year (Perry, 2007). A fair market minimum price, much like a minimum wage for labor, would prevent the poor from being taken advantage of, and give buyers a chance at life (Savulescu, 2008). A fair market price of $45,000 was suggested by the Nobel laureate (in economics) Becker (Savulescu, 2008). He based this fair market price on an average annual salary of $40,000, which would be a lifetime income of 3 million (Savulescu, 2008). He calculated the risk of death at 1%, and a 5% decrease in the quality of life during the recovery period, which equaled $7,000 (Savulescu, 2008). He adjusted the price of the fair market after calculating the true risk of death at about 1/300. This made the final fair market price $20,000 (Savulescu, 2008). Figure 3 illustrates what would happen if the ban on kidney sales was lifted (Cloutier, 2007). The graph indicates that at $30,000, the amount of kidneys supplied would meet the number of kidneys demanded. Also, as the amount of money paid per kidney rises, the number of kidneys supplied would increase. Therefore, the equilibrium would be reached at $30,000 thus eliminating the shortage (Cloutier, 2007). In short, payment for kidneys equals lives saved. The third reason to permit the sale of kidneys is that it would be a financial benefit for an insurance company or Medicare (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2006). Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine determined that a kidney transplant not only improved the quality of life for their patients, but it also saved money (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2006). They found that it was cheaper to have a transplant than to stay on 6|Page kidney dialysis for years until a donor match was found (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2006). In fact, the researchers discovered the break even point was 2. 7 years, which saved the hospital about $27, 000 per year, per patient (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2006). Perhaps, even more significant was the finding that the use of living donor kidneys decreased costs because they functioned better than cadaver kidneys right after transplant (University of Maryland Medical Center, 2006). 3 Assessment A review of both sides of this issue leads to the conclusion that selling a kidney should be legal and ethical, and it would be economically favorable because it would benefit thousands of people. The first opposing view was that a market for kidney sales would exploit the poor population. This argument is faulty because being poor does not make a person incapable of making a rational decision (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). They are certainly able to weigh the risks of this choice. According to Savulescu (2008), â€Å"If altruistic donation is safe enough, then commercial donation should be just as safe if it is legalized. Also, keeping the poor population from being donors prevents them from improving their financial situation (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). Finally, the gap between supply and demand for a kidney also concerns the poor because it creates a situation where someone could take advantage of them (Economist, 2008). If a legal market was regulated, there would be less possibi lity for black market activities because there would be no direct sales or purchases. Therefore, there would be no exploitation of the poor in other countries (Erin & John, 2003). The second argument against legalizing kidney sales is that the buying and selling of organs violates the dignity of the human person, and it treats the kidney like a commodity (Friedman & Friedman, 2006). This position is also flawed. Savulescu (2008) states, â€Å"Where a 7|Page fair price is set, sellers are making judgments about how to promote their own well-being and other values. This is the expression of human dignity: to be autonomous. † Treating the kidney as a commodity is no different than the sale of hair, eggs, blood or semen. Currently, the sale of these bodily materials is legal and ethically accepted despite the fact that they are sold by an unequally large portion of people who are poor (Castro, 2003). 4 Conclusion If paying a living donor can be made legal and as ethically acceptable as other medical practices, kidney sales would be economically sound. Establishing a fair market price for a kidney would address concerns about equity and prevent exploitation by those in an illegal market (Savulescu, 2008). A fair market price would also likely entice more people to sell a kidney. This in turn would increase the supply, decrease the demand and eliminate the shortage. References (2008, October 9). The gap between supply and demand. Retrieved November 27, 2008, from Economist. com Web site: http://www. economist. com/world/international/ displaystory. cfm? story_id=12380981 Autonomy. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved November 28, 2008, from http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/autonomy Bramstedt, K (2007). Checklist: Passport, plane ticket, organ transplant. American Journal of Transplantation. 7(7), 1698-1701. 8|Page Castro, L. D. 2003). Commodification and exploitation: Arguments in favor of compensated organ donation. Journal of Medical Ethics. 29, 142-146. Doucet, B (2008). Kidney kingpin case highlights practical & ethical arguments for free markets. Retrieved November 25, 2008, from Quebecois Libre Web site: http://www. quebecoislibre. org/08/080210-4. htm Erin, C. A. , & Harris, J (2003). An ethical market in human organs. Jou rnal of Medical Ethics. 29, 137-138. Friedman, A. L (2006). Payment for living organ donation should be legalized. BMJ. 333, 746-748. Friedman, E. A. , & Friedman, A. L. , (2006). Payment for donor kidneys: Pros and cons. Kidney International, 69, 960-962. Ghods, A. J. , & Savaj, S (2006). Live kidney organ donation: Is it time for a different approach?. Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology. 1, 1136-1145. Goyal, M, Mehta, R. L, Schneiderman, L. J, & Sehgal, A. R. (2002). Economic and health consequences of selling a kidney in India. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1589-1593. Hall, Joseph (n. d. ). Opening up the market for organs: Support grows for selling body parts, donors for profit don't really benefit. Toronto Star. Knapp, T (2005, April 4). Organ agonistes. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from Free-Market News Network Web site: http://www. freemarketnews. com/ Analysis/118/1275/April-4 2005. asp? nid=1275=118 9|Page Mayes, G (2003). Buying and selling organs for transplantation in the United States. Medscape Transplantation, 4(2), Retrieved November 23, 2008, from http://www. medscape. com/viewarticle/465200_print Perry, M (2007, December 13). Markets in everything: Organ sales. Retrieved November 24, 2008, from Carpe Diem Web site: http://mjperry. blogspot. com/2007/11/ markets-ineverything-organ-sales. tml Savulescu, Julian (2008, September 8). Biotechnology, ethics and free markets. Retrieved November 29, 2008, from University of Oxford Web site: http://www. practicalethicsnews. com/practicalethics/2008/06/setting-a-minim. html Savulescu, Julian (2008, June 19). Setting a minimum price for the sale of organs. Retrieved November 29, 2008, from University of Oxford Web site: http://www. practica lethicsnews. com/practicalethics/2008/06/setting-a-minim. html 10 | P a g e Appendix Figure 1: Illustrates that the wait list rises at a faster rate than the total number of transplants. Source: (Cloutier, 2007). Figure 2a: A price ceiling of $0 is established due to the ban on kidney sales. Source: (Cloutier, 2007). 11 | P a g e How many kidneys are demanded at P=$0? 20,000 kidneys supplied (donated) at P= $0 80,000 kidneys demanded at P= $0 Figure 2b: How many kidneys are supplied and demanded when the legal price is $0. Source: (Cloutier, 2007). What would happen if the ban on kidney sales was lifted? Figure 2c: Shows what would happen if the ban on kidney sales was lifted. Source: (Cloutier, 2007). 12 | P a g e

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Nine Dragons Paper Essay

1.How does MRs. Cheung Think?What does she believein when it comes to building her business? Mrs. Cheung is a very innovative person. Her thinking is extremely positive, creative, advance and quite original. She possess perseverance, determination with a business and marketing mentality and with her know-how business approaches, constructed a corporation that was a leading force in the industry. Her creativeness and originality is evident as she was the first to use waste paper to create packaging paper. When it comes to building her company, she believes in expansion, premeditated and tactical planning . 2 .How would you summarize the company’s financial status? How does it reflect the business development goals and strategies employed by Mrs. Cheung? NDP has been investing at an incredible pace – best demonstrated by comparing the company’s cash flows from operating activities in 2007 and 2008 with the cash flows from investing activities. –NDP has clearly been profitable in recent years, and demonstrates a high rate of profitability one would not ordinarily see in this type of semi-commodity based business –NDP’s rate of profitability, however, has been sliding, reflecting rising input prices and greater competitive markets for its products –The company’s growing debt burden is large and getting larger . 3. Is NDP in trouble? How would your answer differ if you were an existing shareholder, a potential investor, or an analyst? The company still appears to be marginally profitable in this difficult business environment,but profitability is a concept which focuses more on the corporate income statement, not cash flows. The result is that it appears the company will need to borrow even more to survive the year. †¢ Existing shareholders are clearly down, and would like to see the company executive management take measures to improve share price sooner rather than later. They are, however, minority shareholders, Mrs. Cheung and family holding more than 70% of the firm. †¢ Potential investors might see the company has a ‘good bet’, given the current share price low and the prospects for long-term competitiveness .

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

If You Had Taken a Different Path Ice Breaker

If You Had Taken a Different Path Ice Breaker Almost everyone has wished at some point that they had taken a different path in life. We get started in one direction, and before long theres no turning back. Sometimes this isnt that big of a deal, but what a tragedy it is when a life so full of promise gets off track and derails. It can seem like theres no way to change direction. Wouldnt it be wonderful if simply stating the desire for a new path could inspire it to action? Cant hurt to try. Use this easy ice breaker game to find out if your students are in your classroom to find a new direction. Ideal Size Up to 30. Divide larger groups. Use For Introductions in the classroom or at a meeting. Time Needed 30 to 40 minutes, depending on the size of the group. Materials Needed None. Instructions Ask each participant to share their name, a little about the path they chose to take in life, and which path they would choose today if they could do it all over, knowing what they know today. Ask them to add how the different path is related to why they are sitting in your classroom or attending your seminar. Example Hi, my name is Deb. I have been a training manager, performance consultant, editor, and writer. If I could start over and take another path, I would study creative writing more and start my publishing career much earlier. I’m here today because I’d like to include more history in my writing. Debriefing Debrief by asking for reactions to the choices that were shared. Were the changes people would make just slightly different or completely different? Is it too late to change paths? Why or why not? Are people in your classroom today because they’re working toward that change? Use personal examples from the introductions, where appropriate, throughout your class to make the information easier to relate to and apply.

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Nature Of Man - Marxs Capital essays

The Nature Of Man - Marx's Capital essays Many people believe that issues affecting the world today are of no concern for our future generations. They do not dedicate themselves enough to sustaining the limited resources we have available. For example even though people are educated by the society around them and are warned that they should recycle and consume less energy they do not take any action. People understand that they need to use these limited resources wisely, however they do not do anything to solve the issue but only destroy the environment further. Because of this, our natural resources are slowly becoming depleted due to mans greed and power. For those who try to change the world they will not succeed if they are alone. Fixing the environment is not something one can do all alone, we need support from others but man is so greedy. We pretend to care but take no action when the time comes. We do not approve of long term goals; we want what we demand right away. The sole purpose of mans existence is to exploit both the natural and human resources which exist on this planet. (Marx, 1975) Our world is being destroyed gradually by pollution, chemical emissions, garbage dumps, and the misuse of our water supplies. In the future we may not have any natural resources left because of mans greed. We may use up what little resources we have now, and as a result will exploit his physical environment by sucking dry the very resources which maintain his existence... (Marx, 1975) Because of mans greed, today the world is fighting for oil, it is the most valuable product in the economic industry, but soon this product will be wat er. People in future generations will fight for water the way in which they fight for oil today. The greenhouse effect will also be a huge factor if we do not control it now. We are destroying our world more than natural disasters are, and because of this fact man is the only source that affects its re...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How to Purify Sodium Chloride From Rock Salt

How to Purify Sodium Chloride From Rock Salt Rock salt or halite is a mineral the contains sodium chloride (table salt) as well as other minerals and impurities. You can remove most of these contaminants using two simple purification techniques: filtration and evaporation. Materials Rock saltWaterSpatulaFilter paperFunnelEvaporating dishBeaker  or graduated cylinderTripodBunsen burner Filtration If the rock salt is one large chunk, grind it into a powder using a mortar and pestle or a coffee grinder.Add 30-50 milliliters of water to 6 heaping spatula scoops of rock salt.Stir to dissolve the salt.Place the filter paper in the mouth of the funnel.Place the evaporating dish under the funnel to collect the liquid.Slowly pour the rock salt solution into the funnel. Make sure you dont over-fill the funnel. You dont want the liquid to flow around the top of the filter paper because then it isnt getting filtered.Save the liquid (filtrate) that comes through the filter. Many of the mineral contaminants did not dissolve in the water and were left behind on the filter paper. Evaporation Place the evaporating dish containing the filtrate on the tripod.Position the Bunsen burner under the tripod.Slowly and carefully heat the evaporating dish. If you apply too much heat, you could break the dish.Gently heat the filtrate until all the water is gone. Its okay if the salt crystals hiss and move a little.Turn off the burner and collect your salt. Although some impurities remain in the materials, many of them were removed simply by using the difference in solubility in water, mechanical filtration, and by applying heat to drive off volatile compounds. Crystallization If you want to further purify the salt, you can dissolve your product in hot water and crystallize the sodium chloride from it.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

How do you use your time Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

How do you use your time - Essay Example his situation nudges at family and career values which would place me in a dilemma of making an effort of spending time with family and risking exhaustion before my business meeting. My cousin is earnest but not demanding in his invite. His personal credibility is beyond reproach and he is fair enough in not expecting my full commitment to the occasion. His intention in speaking to me is a motive bound in family values and he does not display any intention aside from inviting me to the occasion. His intention is also persuasive but not insistent. As an audience to his request, the family link played a large part in deciding whether or not I would or should consider his request. He knew that I too was aware of the importance of family and that there were already fewer occasions when the extended family got to gather and mingle with each other. This rhetorical situation revolves around the issue of whether or not I should give time for my family on an otherwise uneventful weekend and risk being too weary for my business travel on the weekday work week; or whether or not I should not join family and friends for a gathering in order to stay refreshed for my business engagement. The main lines of reasoning or argument used in this rhetorical situation are my obligation to family and my duty to my career – to perform at 100% capability during the weekday workweek. My cousin is quick to remind me the value of family, but I would have to make a crucial choice on the situation in a few hours time. My cousin appeals not so much on reason but on my emotions and obligations to my family. He is knowledgeable of the fact that I would really be too tired from travelling to and from the baptism and then again for my business trip. Based on that assessment alone, reason would dictate that I would be compromising the quality of my work when the weekday would come. And he does not bring that logical part of the issue in the conversation. Instead, he appeals to my

Friday, October 18, 2019

Nature, perception, reflection and conservation Essay

Nature, perception, reflection and conservation - Essay Example Similarly, Susan Sontag has used imagery throughout his writing to describe the war and its effect. However, the themes of these writers differ as one focuses on nature and the other talks of photography. In his ‘Windstorm in the forest’, John Muir tries to a great extent to personify the nature and the things of nature that are nonhuman. The nonhuman characters such as wind and trees in the forest have been gives both human and superhuman characters. This allows the writer to express his view of beauty and strength of the forest. The whole essay has not mentioned God but a supernatural power is seen to control all these events. The author describes this as nature. The nature in this essay is therefore, given a supernatural power to be in control of the forest. Comparison of nature with human acts is applied by the author. The use of metaphors is used where the wind is allowed by the author in his writing to go to every tree and finger the flowers and the leaves. The storms and their effects are also personified as gardeners. The forest is worked upon and therefore, seen as the patient. Trees in this essay have full human character such as arms, they talk, and swing. Thi s form of writing makes the essay lively and flowing. Susan Sontag focuses on how war photography expresses the effect of military violence. Her description of the photographs of Civil War in New York creates a lot of imagery in her essay. There is a good explanation of how the cameras and videos transform sensibility and vision. She argues that the camera man allows the photos viewer to see only what he or she wants them to see. Casual snapshot expresses a metaphysical aggression against people. Instead of photographs to provide knowledge, they provide what she referred to a semblance of knowledge. Those people who have never experienced war have the wrong knowledge about it from the war photographers (Berry 76). The aim of Sontag in her essay is to give statement

How has the Zapatista Army of National Liberation contributed to Research Paper

How has the Zapatista Army of National Liberation contributed to Democracy in Mexico - Research Paper Example They started out as a small group of progressive Indians which eventually grew into thousands. They organized themselves in the jungle, away from the prying eyes of the government and its ruthless military. The EZLN’s history did not happen overnight. It was the product of careful and clandestine planning and organizing. â€Å"We did that for many years, and we did it in secret, without making a stir.   In other words, we joined forces in silence.3† After ten years of organizing and training in the jungles of Chiapas, The Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion or EZLN was born, otherwise known as the Zapatista Army of National Liberation. They took the name of Emiliano Zapata, a Mexican Revolution hero who championed land reform in Mexico and is also celebrated as the champion of the indigenous people in Southern Mexico.4 EZLN is a revolutionary group that adheres to the ideals of non-violence. Throughout their history, the only instance of violence on record is the 12 days of armed fighting following the January 1, 1994 takeover of four municipalities in Chiapas, namely, San Cristobal de las Casas, las Margaritas, Altamiro, and Ocosingo.5 Almost apologetic to the affected citizens and civilians, they put great emphasis on their declaration that the armed struggle was a measure of last resort because their previous nonviolent actions received little to no government attention and response.6 After 12 days of armed fighting and bloodshed on both sides, the Mexican government and the Zapatista entered into a ceasefire to make way for a peace process. Since then, the EZLN have successfully continued on the fight without shedding blood, combatant or civilians although they have continued with their member’s training in the handling of weapons and arsenals. Nevertheless, the Zapatista is still a military movement. Oxymoron as it may sound, but the Zapatista is an armed movement that carries its struggle in nonviolent ways.7 In the very same way that the EZLN seem to contradict itself on its position on the issues of violence and rebellion, their ideology is also a subject of debate. This confusion is brought by the lack of a categorical statement from the Zapatistas themselves as to their specific ideology. Their enumeration of goals and demands which could be identified with the ideals and ends sought by groups from both ends, including those in between of the political spectrum does little to no help either. In their various declarations, they merely refer to themselves as the â€Å"simple and humble† â€Å"Zapatistas of the EZLN.†8 On the one hand, there are some who observes that the EZLN rose out of the ranks of the leftist movements that espouse Marxist-Leninist ideals. It is argued that their demands enumerated in the First Declaration of the Lancandon Jungle are in accord with the leftist sentiments. The EZLN’s demands include "work, land, housing, food, health, education, independence, liberty, dem ocracy, justice, and

AI Week 11 Criminal DB 153 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

AI Week 11 Criminal DB 153 - Essay Example It is therefore important to address the issue of whether criminal background should be applied in a blanket manner to influence hiring decisions. According to the every person should be given a second chance at proving their suitability to perform. Employers are faced with the ethical dilemma of balancing the safety of their businesses with fairness and in certain instances declining someone’s application for job could result into legal sues. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in the year 2012 released guidelines that prohibit adoption of blanket policies in disqualifying job applicants based on their past criminal records. a past a criminal record doesn’t mean one is incapacitated and EEOC holds that blanket policies treating blacks and Latinos having criminal pasts differently from whites is discriminative and hence illegal. Regardless of whether employers equally apply a law, it is illegal for as longs it harms certain protected groups more than others. This does not prohibit employers from conducting criminal background checks but requires them to prove that their policies are able to link certain c riminal offences and their danger with those risks inherent to particular job positions. In conclusion therefore criminal background checks if not carefully conducted can be discriminative and as such employers are to strive and meet the legal EEOC’S guidelines. Ones criminal past should be checked in terms of nature and gravity, the time that has gone by since one was convicted or completed their sentence and type of job one is applying for. employers should try not apply blanket policies by initiating the criminal backgrounds checks at least at interview level, ensure their policies are in line with necessities of the business, ensure fairness and constantly train the HR teams to apply the best practices of hiring and also

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Restaurant Management Outline Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Restaurant Management - Outline Example This outline follows the analysis, that is done before opening of any sort of business enterprise in today’s environment. Though one might surmise that a food and drink related business like a restaurant would be readily accepted by the local and visiting clientele of any area of London, tastes and traditions differ and one has to account for the different wishes and requirements of various social groups. For example, the pricing of the items must be kept such that the customers can afford a meal now and then, with continuing attractions like foreign cuisine and local celebrations being the focus of attention for the new and existing customers. The success of any business venture is based on the mix of new and old customers returning to the restaurant again and again. At the same time, cooking, presentation and quality standards must be ensured. Conducting a feasibility study for developing a new business requires analysis of present and likely future market conditions. The lo cation and look of the restaurant, proximity to public shopping areas, internal ambience and quality of meals and service were analyzed in this outline, as well as a variety of good ideas to keep the customers interested, that are mentines as key factors of success. In conclusion, the researcher excretes the main means to an end, such as local culture, traditional delicacies, kids corner, free parking and good locale and outdoor eating habits of Cheltenham residents, which he is confident will make this venture a resounding success.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The future of the human evolution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The future of the human evolution - Essay Example In his book, Darwin of the eighties, sought to explain the evolution of man as a process of natural selection. Darwin proposes four components of natural selection. First, he argues that characters within a population exhibit variations in appearance and conduct. This may be in terms of height, skin color or even body size. Darwin also talks about heritable traits, which are passed on from parents to offspring as opposed to traits powered by environmental conditions. His third component concerns population growth, which at times leads to mortality in cases where the resources cannot support the high population. The fourth component is derived from the third, in which Darwin argues that individuals with desirable traits will always survive in such an environment and give rise the next generation. This is known as natural selection, in which individuals struggle to survive and nature favors the strong. Based on this theory, human beings then have a high chance of evolving, powered by t he advancement in technological innovations, which will enable them survive. Variations among individuals within a population are occasioned by genetic differences. Genes are the materials through which traits are inherited from parents to offspring. ... Not all mutations are detrimental: a mutation in the brain of the Australopithecus enabled him to develop a larger brain and evolve into a hominid. Technological knowhow, however, has been seen to interfere with natural selection. Today, medics have come up with medicine to prolong the lives of mutants, thus encouraging the survival of weaklings which ultimately affects future generations. This means that individuals with desirable traits might mate with mutants and bring forth changes in the human race. This will lead to evolution, which will be occasioned by mutation. Consequently, future generations of human beings might not be able to survive. This not withstanding, not all mutations are negative. Some mutations may be advantageous to the human race. This perception has led to medical practitioners trying to come up with genetically modified human beings known as clones. These clones are designed to have all the positive attributes of their original humans and thus be more suitab ly adapted to live on earth. Human migration might also affect future evolution in terms of gene flow, which is a process of interbreeding between different populations of a given species (Mayr pp.55). When a person migrates from his original place of birth to go to another country, he is bound to start a family with the local people. This leads to the emergence of a new breed of people carrying the genes of both parents. An example of this is the era of the trans-Atlantic trade in which, many able bodied African men were shipped off to the United States to work as slaves. They later married the local women and gave rise to the African Americans. The latter were seen to have inherited most of

Restaurant Management Outline Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Restaurant Management - Outline Example This outline follows the analysis, that is done before opening of any sort of business enterprise in today’s environment. Though one might surmise that a food and drink related business like a restaurant would be readily accepted by the local and visiting clientele of any area of London, tastes and traditions differ and one has to account for the different wishes and requirements of various social groups. For example, the pricing of the items must be kept such that the customers can afford a meal now and then, with continuing attractions like foreign cuisine and local celebrations being the focus of attention for the new and existing customers. The success of any business venture is based on the mix of new and old customers returning to the restaurant again and again. At the same time, cooking, presentation and quality standards must be ensured. Conducting a feasibility study for developing a new business requires analysis of present and likely future market conditions. The lo cation and look of the restaurant, proximity to public shopping areas, internal ambience and quality of meals and service were analyzed in this outline, as well as a variety of good ideas to keep the customers interested, that are mentines as key factors of success. In conclusion, the researcher excretes the main means to an end, such as local culture, traditional delicacies, kids corner, free parking and good locale and outdoor eating habits of Cheltenham residents, which he is confident will make this venture a resounding success.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Journal Entry Essay Example for Free

Journal Entry Essay The ability of change to become manifested in both man and environment gives each one the opportunity to create meaning in each action and scenario. Such idea can be taken either in a positive or negative manner and is dependent on the mindset and the relevant impact in can contribute to man and the environment. Seeing this, it change is inevitable however it has brought about different dimensions in understanding how it influences man’s actions or the formation of a scenario. Reflecting on the works of Faulkner, Capote and Weschler, one theme may circumvent in their reading – change. However their main difference is the way it was addressed and embodied by the characters in the story. I argue that these manifestations are necessarily generated by the choices we constantly make in our life. These in turn affect our environment as a whole as we try our best to adhere to the trends and standards of societal life. This in turn results in the transformation of customary beliefs, values and ideals of an individual to suit such need. Furthermore, it is with these decisions that we gain contentment and satisfaction in our ways. With the different challenges and distractions happening in our lives today, one may find it difficult to look for the appropriate ways that can make them happy. However, like the character of the old woman in Faulkner’s story, the path towards this may seem simple her eyes. For my part, I feel that by removing and distancing myself to these norms, I can get a glimpse of what I want and generate ideas that can provide satisfaction or contentment on my part. Such can contribute to the creation of meaning as I find ways to answer the questions and issues of my life.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Art In Cinema Film Studies Essay

The Art In Cinema Film Studies Essay Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating   or indoctrinating   citizens. Film may be combined with performance art and still be considered or referred to as a film, for instance, when there is a live musical accompaniment to a silent film. The act of making a film can, in and of itself, be considered a work of art, on a different level from the film itself.. A road movie can refer to a film put together from footage from a long road trip or vacation. Intuitively, some films qualify as artworks and others do not. All film is art, though some of it is better art or higher art. This, it turns out, is not just a question for those with a special interest in film. It has interest for aesthetic value more broadly, because film can serve as a test case for definitions of art. Some theories of art seem too restrictive, because they prevent us from classifying certain films that are aesthetic masterpieces into th e category of art. The intentions of the creators in attaining status as art. Sometimes, however, creators do not conceive of their creations as primarily belonging to the class of artworks, but viewers come to recognize that they can be fruitfully regarded in this way. This is not to say that a work becomes art when its taken up by a art-consuming audience. A theory of that kind would face the difficulty of saying which audiences had the power of conferring art status. Moreover, audiences do not transform works into art, rather they discover that a works deserves to be regarded in that way. If this intuition is right, the key to understanding what makes a film count as art is what goes on in this discovery process. India is well known for its commercial cinema, better known as Bollywood. Almost every Indian is well versed with onscreen running around the trees singing songs, the fight sequences, twins meeting each other pachchees saal baad, topped with some dose of mush and lots and lots of spice. However there are other types of movies which focus purely on story- minus the masala. This genre is sometimes referred as Pheeka or Bina namak mirch wala (bland) kind of cinema. In addition to commercial cinema, there is also Indian art cinema, known to film critics as New Indian Cinema or sometimes the Indian New Wave. A true admirers of cinema and people who consider movie-making as an art call it the Offbeat or The Art House Cinema. Many people in India plainly call such films as art films as opposed to mainstream commercial cinema. From the 1960s through the 1980s, the art film or the parallel cinema was usually government-aided cinema. Such directors could get federal or state government grants to produce non-commercial films on Indian themes. Their films were showcased at state film festivals and on the government-run TV. These films also had limited runs in art house theatres in India and overseas. The Indian Art Cinema or the New Wave sometimes called has had a humble beginning. This genre doesnt boast of foreign locales, hopelessly expensive clothes or the big star cast. The sole strength of these kind of films is the story. The Indian Art Cinema has beautifully transformed and re-invented itself. From socially relevant topics of Child Marriage, Dowry, Female Foeticide, Widow Re-marriage to a simple love story. The Art film-makers have done it all. Its amazing to see how some of the very talented film-makers have gifted their audiences with some of their magnificent work. There is Shekhar Kapoor who beautifully told the story of a man struggling to make his illegitimate son a part of his family (Masoom) and we got one of the all time masala entertainers Mr India from the same director. The person who gave us Zubeida, Ankur and Manthan came up with something as entertaining as Welcome to Sajjanpur and the very recent Well Done Abba. The Gen-X today are more intelligent and open to a wide variety of topics. At the end of the day the purpose of the film and the audience should be served. The audience wants a good story and a really good way of putting it and thats what the film makers are supposed to do. Yes masala flicks are welcome but too much of masala can cause acidity! A good mixture of masala movies and intelligent cinema is what the audience wants. Brainless comedies work, but again not always. In this new context of art-house appeal to the mainstream, of limited box-office appeal is striking, if not, perhaps, inaccurate. On the other hand, general conceptions of art house have come to describe films simply on the basis of their production outside the Bollywood system, regardless of their status as conventional dramas or slightly offbeat comedies. Surely a film with a 30-crore budget, Bollywood stars, and wide release does not fit the standard art-house profile. And yet a documentary about global warming w ith art house written all over it-complete with its charisma-challenged star, Al Gore-enjoyed sold-out screenings at huge multiplex theaters across the globe. From the very inception of this genre, there has been a difference between art and commercial cinema. However with changing times this gap has been bridged. The themes of art movies have witnessed a change. The earlier trends in Indian Art movies were more specifically related to the Indian audience, while the recent incline is towards the global concept. Quite ideally therefore the Indian Art cinema has gradually emerged itself as a reflections of the happenings in the society. Now many of these Art Movies or small films are grossing major profits and competing for space at the big multiplexes as well as finding their audiences at the small cinemas devoted to specialty fare. What will be ideal is an exclusive chain national art house cinema multiplexes to mark the new era of these specialized cinema. The audiences today look out for good films rather than the serious or popular films. Hence once a while a multi-starrer movie bombs and a small budget movie like Aamir is much appreciated by the cine goers. The need for better subjects, the desire to watch something more feasible on the screen and the boredom that has set in with the regular candy floss cinema are some of the reasons for this apparent change. If this trend continues then the day is no far when there will be no commercial cinema or art cinema, but just good cinema and bad cinema. India is full of art and that is depicted in Indian movies. But a commercial or non commercial movie, both need art. Commercial movies need art in form of background, sets, getting a shot right. Both have got distinct way of describing art through movies. There are a number of genres and styles of Indian cinema that a viewer encounters, such as, romantic comedies, gangster films, horror films, westerns, melodramas, musicals and historical films. While some of these genres are present in Indian cinema, often as a consequence of the impact of the western films, the Indian filmmakers have also created some styles of their own, that are acknowledged as their own. This is clearly discernible in the popular tradition of filmmaking in India. The knowledge of Indian cinema provides an entry into the thought-worlds and performance-worlds to the people interested in this art. Many Indian film directors, right from the pioneers such as Dadasaheb Phalke to the modern ones like Yash Chopra, have deployed their creativity along with traditional forms of dance mime, folk classical music to enhance the communicated experience. Indian popular cinema has evolved into a distinctively Indian mode of entertainment by imaginatively amalgamating music dances also and the works of veteran directors like V.Shantaram. Guru Dutt and Raj Kapoor bear a testimony to this fact. So, through Indian cinema one can also enter the larger world of Indian aesthetics. Film makers like Ketan Mehta has made a movie on the life of 19th century painter Raja Ravi Varma named it as Rang Rasiya. Its a very artistic movie showing us the reality of the society in the 19th century. He had also directed Mangal pande which was againg very artistic from the sets to costume everything gave you the feel on the 18th century. Aushitosh Gowarikars Jodha Akbar is another epic story in which art played a very important role. To add on the list is devdas Sanjay Leela Bhansali did a brilliant job with art direction. Indian cinema has presented a detailed version of India from its different historical movies to its present scenario movies. The distinct genres of films depicted by the different filmmakers have helped in the study of India from a different and distinct angle of vision. Thus, one cannot help but realize the fact that indeed it has been the old traditions and the cultures that have actually framed the Indian cinema, which have been an encouragement to uplift India and make it one of the renowned countries in the world. By seeing the cultures and traditions of the distinct societies, people can examine their own country`s culture with fresh eyes and with a special vision and approach.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

How does Elie Wiesel change in response to his concentration camp exper

Everyday, we go through situations and experiences that affect us in someway, perhaps even change us. Different situations have different effects. The more difficult the situation is, the more of an effect it has on us. Those hard times can be called adversity. How do we, as humans, react to adversity? What are the possible effects it may have?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  An example of adversity is the Holocaust - Hitler‘s plan to exterminate the Jews. In the memoir, Night, we discover how Elie Wiesel changes in response to his concentration camp experiences. The separation from his loved ones and the horrible conditions of these camps affect Elie immensely. Elie is affected in the following ways: physically, emotionally and spiritually. The Holocaust had changed him into a completely different person.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Physically, Elie basically changes from a healthy human being into a walking skeleton. The Jews can be described as â€Å"skin and bones†. They were also extremely weak. Being forced to work at their labor camps must have been extremely difficult. The lack of food served at the camps, as well as the poor quality of what is being served made him that way. The Jews were only fed bread and soup. It gets to the point where everything revolves around food and each person’s own survival. For example, on page 104, Elie’s father claims that the other prisoners were beating him. Elie’s then says â€Å" I began to abuse his neighbors...

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Green Knight :: Arthurian Legends

Green Knight One of the most misunderstood characters from the Arthurian Legends is the Green Knight, especially in comparison with Sir Gawain. At first glance, the Green Knight seems to be very overpowering in his challenging of the knights of King Arthur’s court. He even indicates that everyone in the court is weak, and he cannot believe that this is the famous Arthur’s house: â€Å"What, is this Arthur’s house,† said that horseman then. (Norton, 309) The Green Knight knows that he will not die from a strike of an axe, and so he is offering to play this game to mock the knights of the Round Table. But, as it turns out later, the Green Knight is more noble and fair than it seems and is also very kind. He will not kill his challenger but gives him a more fair test, a test of character. The Green Knight, or Bercilak de Hautdesert as he introduces himself, is not such a bad guy and is actually a very good host. He gladly takes Sir Gawain into his home and offers him everything, a nice bath, food, clothing, and ironically, even his wife. He also offers to the Sir Gawain a very good deal, to share everything they both get in a day: Said the good host, 'agree now to this: Whatever I win in the woods I will give you at eve, And all you have earned you must offer to me; Swear now, sweet friend, to swap as I say, Whether hands, in the end, be empty or better.' (Norton, 1105-1109) And, while Sir Gawain just sits at home, sleeps late and enjoys his day with a beautiful lady, Bercilak de Hautdesert goes out to hunt for game. In reality the Green Knight wants to give Sir Gawain an opportunity to show his inner self. The Green Knight tests Sir Gawain by sending his own wife to seduce him, to check first of all, if he’ll bite the bait, and second, if he will be honest about it. The Green Knight realizes that it is not completely fair for him to challenge a mortal person, Sir Gawain, and so he wants to give Sir Gawain another chance to stay alive.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Frozen Food Business in Bangladesh

Abstract This paper is a review of Bangladeshi Frozen Food Business. Frozen Foods in Bangladesh encompass from fishes to ready-to-cook foods. However, fishes and shrimps are exported and generate foreign exchanges for Bangladesh, whereas, the semi-processed foods are imported and produced locally. Indeed, it is a potential business where rural people can be benefited by investing little amount of money, and producing and meeting the emergence demand in the market.This paper additionally concerns on the constraints of business such as lack of properly trained people, stiff competition for the home made processed foods. Therefore, this paper identifies new scope for the growth and development of this segment. Since this segment has got little concerns, we hope that this paper would meet the requirements for the development of the frozen food business and aid the base for further research on this segment. Introduction Though Bangladesh is an agricultural based country, its aquaculture i s developing and contributing to the export of the country.In fact, the frozen food is one of largest contributor to the foreign exchange earnings and occupies fourth position among the export items in terms of total export earnings (Bureau of Statistics, 2004). In Bangladesh, frozen food includes shrimp and fish, and shrimp contributes to the majority of earnings from the frozen food. However, in recent years, the frozen food business has become diversified, and traditional thinking about it has also changed. In Bangladesh, it has been developing based on the fishery along with processed meat and chicken.Indeed, in Bangladesh, new trend in the frozen food business is emerging in silence, which is semi or fully prepared food in retail outlets. But unfortunately, there is not much research work on this segment of frozen food business done, which is developing and growing a new innovative concept in the vacuum space of frozen food business. In fact, this development and its policy imp lications have received little attention in the literature on export-led industrialization in developing countries (Athukorala & Sen, 1996).Therefore, for our research work, we are focusing on processed frozen food found in the retail outlets, and hope that this work would help for the further development of this segment in frozen food business in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, fishes, shrimps and prawns are exported as frozen food to various parts of the world. The frozen seafood sector is booming by exporting. Earnings from this area are increasing and have the potential to increase more. The value of these exports in 1996-97 was US$342. 26 millions (Bureau of Statistics, 1997).However, the shrimp belt of Bangladesh is always the subject of debates on law, order, safety and production process and food quality and environmental issues. As such, in 1997, the European Union (EU) imposed a ban on Bangladesh’s frozen food exports after an EU inspection team report condemned shrimp p rocessing plants in Khulna and Chittagong for their failure to comply with EU quality control regulations (http://www. ifpri. org). However, the agenda of concern is with the semi or fully prepared frozen food that is an emerging market in Bangladesh.These food items have been commercialized recently under company labels like Bombay Sweets, Rich and Aftab. In addition, there are other concerns that supply with this type of frozen food and they are called homemade items. The range of frozen food can contain prepared or semi-prepared food like parathas, pizza, franks, samucha, chops, shami kabab, puri, nuggets, and many more exquisite delicacies. The increasing demand for these types of products has given rise to domestic production of these food items, whereas, a couple of years back everything was imported (Personal Interview, Nandon).Origin of the Study Basically frozen food can be a processed or semi-processed food that is kept in freezer to preserve it for later use. However a be tter explanation may include, Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. Freezing food is a common method of food preservation which slows both food decay and, by turning water to ice, makes it unavailable for bacterial growth and slows down most chemical reactions (http://www. wikipedia. com). Moreover, the condition required to keep frozen food is diifferent. Foods may be preserved for several months by freezing.Long-term freezing requires a constant temperature of -18  °C (0 degrees Fahrenheit) or less. Some freezers cannot achieve such a low temperature. The time food can be kept in the freezer is reduced considerably if the temperature in a freezer fluctuates. Fluctuations could occur by a small gap in the freezer door or adding a large amount of unfrozen food. A special kind of freezer is required to constantly cool the food and in this manner the texture of the food remains the same (http://www. wikipedia. com). Food preserved by freezing or preserved by the process of freezing, is termed as frozen food.Preserving food by freezing is a widespread method of preservation as it slows both food decays. It happens by turning water to ice, which makes it unavailable for bacterial augmentation and slows down most chemical reactions. It is not possible to grow or produce all kinds of food throughout the year or every where around the world. The need for storage and keeping food fresh for a long period of time arises to make them available in all season and everywhere. It is the blessing of science that now it is possible to keep food frozen for our betterment. Today, frozen food products are making our frantic life-styles seem a bit easier better.In fact, successfully evolving and adapting to the needs of consumers, frozen foods have been around a lot longer than we think (http://www. reference. com). History of Commercialization of Frozen Food Business The frozen food industry that we see today can be traced back to several years back to the p ast. Obviously, the existence of frozen food has always been on earth; in climates that were cold enough for the food to freeze. The Chinese were the first to harness the power of freezing foods beyond the winter months. Later, the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Indians also discovered that (http://www. fraweb. org). Even though ice-refrigerated railroad cars allowed perishable food products to be shipped as early as the 1860s, major innovations in refrigeration engineering after World War II gave birth to the frozen food industry. Scientists also developed techniques to control the ripening of fruits, vegetables, and other perishables that further extended shelf-life. Advances in transportation came particularly fast – steamships in the mid-1800s, railroads and refrigerated trucks 19th century – and combined with falling oil prices to dramatically reduce the cost of shipping food.It now costs 70 percent less to ship cargo by sea, and 50 percent less to ship by air, tha n it did 20 years ago. Furthermore, invention of frozen orange juice concentration and artificial organic food items also cause the consumers located in different geographical area to enjoy seasonal fresh foods at any time season (Halweil, 2002). With the course of time, many people developed innovative techniques of food-freezing, including Enoch Piper, William Davis, and Daniel E. Somes. But, Clarence Birdseye (1886 – 1956), an American taxidermist by trade, is credited for his quick freezing method that he invented in 1924 (http://www. oc. gov) and considered the father of the frozen food industry. He invented, developed, and commercialized a method for quick-freezing food products in convenient packages and without altering the original taste (http://www. wikipedia. com). Before the quick-freezing technique came along, foods were frozen at a fairly slow rate, making the foods loose their taste and texture. However, Birdseye theorized that food must be frozen very quickly so that its taste and texture can be maintained. His theory covered the packaging, type of paper used, and related innovations along with the ‘freezing technique'.In fact, this quick-freezing process actually ended up creating 168 patents (http://www. loc. gov). The modern frozen food industry was born over 70 years ago, in 1930, when frozen foods were being traded commercially (http://www. nfraweb. org). Objectives of the Study This study attempts to identify the current condition of frozen food business in Bangladesh, especially the semi-processed food segment of frozen food. Therefore, our agenda focuses on the semi-processed food found in the retail outlet.Therefore, this study will identify the future perspective of the frozen food business, space of growth, employment opportunity and scope of developing frozen food business country wide to develop the market and export for foreign earnings. Significance of the Study As we have seen from the earlier segment, frozen food b usiness has become very important for Bangladesh due to its capability of foreign earnings and employment opportunity in this sector. However, the semi-processed food segment in the frozen food has not got any attention; consequently no proper research work is available.Therefore, we hope our study would help the frozen food sector as it would reveal the future perspective of the frozen food business and develop the ideas on what the entrepreneurs and government should do for the development and expansion of this particular segment the. Methodology To prepare the report, we will go for massive research on the frozen food business throughout the semester. The study is mainly based on secondary data and documentary methods. Documents are an important source of information and such sources of data might be used in various ways for the research work.To attain the study different books, journals have been studied. Different websites and portals have been visited when required. Furthermor e, we took interview of Deputy Manager at Nandan. Lastly, we have concluded the study by providing some recommendations based on our findings. Limitations of the Study Everything is its limitations as it has opportunities to develop. There still exist some limitations in our study. The limitations are we only focused on the secondary source but not able to visit any production facility.There is also time constraint as for any research work it requires more that two to three years; but within three month semester, we had to complete the study on the frozen food business. Literature Review International business is defined as ‘transactions that are devised and carried out across national borders' and has existed since the national borders were formed and has shown growth throughout the history with greater peace and security, economic prosperity through development in transportation and communication, and technological progress, especially advent of Internet, liberalization of t rade policies and reduction in ariffs, and creation of global institutes and agreements (GATT or WTO). During the last 30 years of twentieth century (1970-2000), the volume of international trade in goods and services has expanded from a level of US$200 billion to over US$6. 8 trillion – a 34- fold increase, which is faster than world output. Direct foreign investment (FDI) reached a level of US$4. 7 trillion by 2000. The sales of foreign affiliates of multinational corporations (MNCs) recorded a level twice as high as global exports.The driving force behind the growing/changing international business is the process of globalization, which has been accelerated during the last 2-3 decades (Hussain, 2002). A noteworthy recent development in world trade is the rapid expansion of processed food exports and it is the fastest growing component in food products (Athukorala & Sen, 1996; Australian Food Statistics, 2001). The impetus for export expansion has come from new agro-based m anufacturing activities, in particular various fish preparations and processed foods.While labor-intensive manufactures too have demonstrated impressive growth dynamism in absolute terms, this has been dwarfed by the more dramatic growth record of processed goods. There is evidence that these new product lines have many positive attributes according to which the contribution of manufactures to the objectives of industrialization is normally evaluated (Athukorala & Sen, 1996).These include economy-wide linkages, important learning effects emanating from the mastery of new production technology, higher productivity, international marketing effort and entrepreneurial skills involved in export success (Meller, 1995). Based on the conventional definition, export of manufacturing (Appendix A) share in total exports of world trade merchandise increased to 81 percent in 1994 and closely associated with the rapid expansion of manufacturing exports form developing countries those shares in wo rld manufacturing exports increased to 24 percent in 1994.On the other hand, share of processed food in world non-manufacturing (Appendix A) trade increased to 37 percent in 1994, and this share is sharper for developing countries compared to that of developed countries with increased to 38 percent compared to an increase to 36 percent recorded by developed countries in 1994. However, mong the 37 countries, some countries have performed far better than others in this area such as Bangladesh, Bolivia, Chile, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand; and among the low-income countries, Bangladesh is a notable exception, with a growth rate of processed food exports that is more than double that that of any other low income developing country (Athukorala & Sen, 1996). Foreign direct investment has been increasing at a faster rate than direct exports of processed foods over the past decades.Although its impact is currently not quantified, national-level regulation is frequently cited as a potential source of non-tariff barriers to trade for food products. These barriers may be intentionally aimed at favoring domestic production, or merely be the innocent by-products of a country’s attempt to serve its consumers by assuring various food quality attributes. FDI allows food processors to avoid rules intended to disadvantage imported products by setting production within particular markets.It may also allow more precise and rapid adaptation to domestic quality regulations (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). A priori reasoning and some scattered evidence suggest a number of factors, which results in growing share of processed food in the world trade. A widely observed feature of consumer behavior in the global economy has been an increasing `internationalization of food habits’ – the increased importance of processed items in food consumption patterns in developed countries as well as in large sections of the populace in many developing countries.Factors such as international migration, the communications revolution and international tourism have contributed to this phenomenon. This may have provided a significant demand-side impetus to the growth of processed food exports from developing countries. On the supply-side, improvements in food technology, refrigeration facilities and transportation have made processed food items easily tradable across national boundaries (Athukorala & Sen, 1996). Furthermore, strategic choice of FDI or export the processed food in the international market is also influenced by national-level regulation on the ood quality standard. FDI allows food processors, by setting production within a market, to avoid rules intended to disadvantage imported products and to adapt rapidly to domestic quality regulations through greater flexibility, better designed plants, shorter shipping distance, less need for preservatives, packaging or refrigeration, superior understanding of the rules or better appreciation of local d emands for goods with differing attributes to direct food quality benefits to both firms and consumers (Hooker & Caswell, 1996).The emphasis on manufactured exports expansion in developing countries is rooted in the belief that compared to primary commodities, manufactured goods have some intrinsic characteristics, which contribute to superior growth performance. As such employment potential, terms of trade gains, knowledge and technology spill-over are among the most emphasized of these characteristics (Athukorala & Sen, 1996).However, in general, the employment potential of resource-based manufacturing, based on standard trade theory (Heckscher-Ohlin model), is that an abundant supply of labor is not a key determinant of comparative advantage in international production (Findlay, 1985; Roemer, 1979). The Heckscher-Ohlin model (1933) was first conceived by two Swedish economists, Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin at the Stockholm School of Economics. The Heckscher-Ohlin model is a gen eral equilibrium mathematical model of international trade.It builds on David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage by predicting patterns of trade and production based on the factor endowments of a trading region. The model essentially says that countries will export products that utilize their abundant factor(s) of production and import products that utilize the countries' scarce factor(s). However, this generalization in processed food is debatable as there is no clear relationship between income levels and processed food export growth.Furthermore, unlike in the case of further processing of resources such as minerals and timber, final stages of food processing appear to be labor-intensive. Besides, terms of trade gains from export diversification depends on the degree of income and price elasticity of demand for the commodities concerned, and processed food exports are superior to primary products in terms of these criteria. Furthermore, processed food would be even superior to conventional manufactured goods, hich are by their very nature, are highly import-dependent. On the other hand, processed food industries have large domestic resource content and tend to be closely related to activities in the rural sector (Athukorala & Sen, 1996). It is very likely that recent trade agreements and developments will significantly influence national-level regulation of food quality. NAFTA, GATT and WTO are the first attempt to specifically address food quality standards as potential barriers to trade.National-level quality regulation takes on many dimensions or regimes because product quality itself is multidimensional. Trade theory provides a foundation for analyzing the impact of food quality regulation on FDI and trade. In its basic form, economic theory suggests that gains from trade arise when countries specialize in production of those goods to which they are best suited, thereby earning export income that allows for increased consumption.Trade theoryâ€⠄¢s recent focus on analyzing rent seeking and rent shifting associated with national regulation, the benefits to individual sectors of an economy from trade agreements, and the divergence of outcomes between countries with different per capita income levels are also useful. New trade theory, on the other hand, discusses the effects on trade and investment patterns of imperfect competition, economies of scale, and distortions in factor markets.It advances two quite different explanations of Intra-industry Trade – one emphasizes the interaction of product differentiation and economies of scale and second one emphasizes the literal two-way trade of identical products, with price discrimination being the driving force. It is useful for analyzing quality regulation because it focuses on the many factors that affect the welfare impacts of trade policy (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). Barriers to freer trade arising from non-tariff sources have become more prominent as progress has been m ade worldwide on tariff reduction.Parties to recent trade agreements have sought to lower non-tariff barriers or at a minimum to assure that progress toward freer trade is not thwarted by increases in non-tariff barriers. Regulation of product quality can be a major source of non-tariff barriers to trade. If such barriers are to be lowered, trading partners must develop methods of regulatory rapprochement. For processed food products the level of regulatory rapprochement on quality regulation will have significant impacts on patterns of international trade in the next decade (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). Hirschberg et al. 1992) investigated the bilateral trading patterns of 30 countries and found that various market size variables (Appendix B) such as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the comparative size of GDP between trading partners shared border and membership in either the European Community or European Free Trade Area proved to be significant determinants of intra-indus try trade. Similarly, the study of Hartman and colleagues (1992) on processed food and beverage industries resulted stressed the positive effect on intra-industry trade of US total trade and economies of scope.The study on processed food of Handy and MacDonald (1989) found that product differentiation cultural ties, and firm size were significant determinants of FDI. Connor (1989) expanded on this evidence to suggest the importance of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade and domestic and foreign market structure, and stressed effects of the host country's regulatory practices, patent protection and trademark laws as likely factors in determining FDI levels. Ning and Reed (1995) highlighted the importance of factors such as host market size, growth rate, and membership in a trading bloc in explaining FDI patterns.In addition, research by Sheldon and Witzke (1992) provided various quality models to trade in food products and highlighted the key role played in the market by consume rs' ability to verify standards set by another country. National-level quality regulation and within trade bloc rapprochement influences firms’ choice of strategies to increase sales abroad such as export sales, joint ventures, FDI, and licensing although not yet quantified. The demand for food quality will continue to increase as incomes increase. National-level performance expectations will increase in the future.Demand for higher quality products increases as income increases. In addition, National governments are the first in line to respond to this demand with new regulations. The demand and new national regulations are likely to outstrip harmonization efforts on an ongoing basis, leaving national regulations with an enduring influence on patterns of trade in processed food products. Quality regulation has momentum, in both more and less developed countries, making keeping up very difficult for firms and cooperating countries.For firms working under national-level qualit y regulation, a very significant problem is that the regulation is dynamic, changing, and in many cases ratcheting up (Hooker & Caswell, 1996). In addition to the national-level quality regulation, many countries have implemented labeling requirements for foods. Labeling provides processor and retailers’ choice, not necessarily consumer choice. The decision of these intermediaries is central to the outcome of any food labeling policy. Consumers will be part of their labeling decision, because retailers and processors will conduct marketing studies on consumer perception (Carter & Gruere, 2003).However, the food label is an important tool for improving the public understanding of the health benefits of following a nutritious diet. The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has continued to study food labels with its Food Label and Package Survey (FLAPS). Data from the 2000–2001 FLAPS characterize various aspects of the labeling of processed, packaged foods, including nutrition labeling and various types of label claims. The final FLAPS database consists of 1,281 foods. An estimated 98. % of FDA-regulated processed, packaged foods sold annually have nutrition labels, with an additional 1. 7% of products exempt from nutrition labeling requirements. Health claims, structure or function claims, and nutrient content claims were identified on food labels. In addition to the resource this, survey provides to CFSAN in assessing health and nutrition information on the food label, registered dietitians and other health professionals can use FLAPS data to assist consumers in choosing a more nutritious diet to improve their health and well-being (http://www. sciencedirect. com).Food safety and Environmental Requirements in International Market It is useful to distinguish between two kinds of food safety and environmental requirements. Mandatory requirements formulated by national or local governments are here referred to as ‘regulations’, while voluntary requirements formulated by the private sector, NGOs or other organizations are referred to as ‘standards’. The latter category includes those voluntary requirements drawn up by National Standards Organizations and international bodies (United Nations, 2007). Food-safety standards and regulations tend to cover multiple issues.Apart from food safety, they cover issues such as plant and animal health, product quality, environmental protection and social welfare. Government regulations applied to imports of FFV sector largely focus on food safety, labeling and marketing requirements. Private-sector standards tend to focus on food safety, environmental protection and social welfare (Geneva, 2006). A number of factors have contributed too increasingly stringent food safety regulations and standards imposed by governments and the private sector, in particular: †¢ Recent food scares and scandals in developed countries; Demographic developments in developed countries (i. e. ageing of population, which gives rise to be more risk-averse and quality-conscious consumer behavior); †¢ Risk minimization efforts by retailers; and †¢ More sophisticated detection and testing methods. Food safety standards and regulations tend to cover multiple aspects. Apart from food safety, they cover issues such as plant and animal health, product quality, environmental protection and social welfare (United Nations, 2007). Requirements laid down in government regulations are often transmitted to producers and exporters in developing countries through the supply chain.For example, EU legislation tends to hold importers accountable for compliance with its provisions with regard to imported products. The need to take responsibility for the safety of the food they import into the EU market places importers under an obligation to exercise due diligence over supply chains (Geneva, 2006). Possible Implicatio n for Developing Countries Developing countries face considerable constraints in meeting food safety regulations and private-sector requirements due to weak institutions, lack of infrastructure, high compliance costs, lack of information, and other factors.One can even go so far to say that the new mandatory and voluntary requirements act to reinforce other strengths and weaknesses at production unit and supply-chain levels, i. e. in terms of technical or transport infrastructure (Geneva, 2006). Adoption of the HACCP approach to assuring safety Developed countries are increasingly requiring adoption of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach to assuring food safety. In the EU, the use of HACCP has become mandatory for all food categories.The use of HACCP is not mandatory in the case of primary production. However, the use of HACCP is mandatory in packinghouses in the case of semi-processed and processed food, vegetables, and products that are pre-packed in th e exporting country (United Nations, 2007). Economic Environment of Bangladesh During the last few years, Bangladesh made considerable progress in stabilizing and liberalizing its economy. As a result, inflation was much lower than previously, and average annual real GDP growth was above 5%, largely led by exports.Indeed, one of the most striking features of Bangladesh's trade is that textiles and particularly clothing dominate exports. This dramatic change in the composition of exports is the consequence of Bangladesh's increased integration into the multilateral trading system. On the structural policy front, the Government has continued to pursue, inter alia, trade liberalization, financial sector reform, and privatization (www. wto. org). Unfortunately, real annual GDP growth, averaging around 6. 7% during the review period, has not been sufficient to make much of a dent in the poverty that pervades Bangladesh.Given Bangladesh's high incidence of poverty, its dense population, a nd its vulnerability to natural disasters, including periodic flooding and cyclones, food security is a major policy objective of the Government. Trade Policy Framework The Ministry of Commerce (MOC) is responsible for coordinating trade policy matters through its agencies, as well as in consultation with other Ministries and governmental bodies; national committees are formed to address specific issues on trade and industrial development.Private sector representatives, including business groups and academic institutions, are consulted in the policy-making process through their participation in the national committees. A major institutional change involves the upgrading of the Tariff Commission under the purview of the MOC; the Commission is now empowered to conduct anti-dumping and countervailing investigations (http://www. wto. org).Local regulations, standards and good agricultural practices (GAP) can assist developing countries in promoting safe and sustainable production system s and in supplying products for domestic, regional and international markets that meet the quality, safety and environmental standards of those markets (United Nations, 2007). Trade Policy Measures In an effort to encourage investment, the Government offers a wide range of open-ended tax incentives, notably tax holidays and accelerated depreciation.However, the effectiveness of such incentives in attracting investment is doubtful, particularly in the absence of fiscal transparency, which would involve a detailed account of tax revenues forgone and systematic evaluation of the impact of these incentives in relation to forgone taxes. The existence of incentives complicates tax administration and taxpayer compliance, while increasing the scope for tax avoidance and evasion, both of which are reflected in Bangladesh's low overall level of tax collection relative to GDP (http://www. wto. org). Frozen Food Business in BangladeshBangladesh as a third-world country poses poverty, unstructur ed business environment, conservative social values for living as an inherent quality. Since this country has achieved independence, it started to changing slowly and now its changing rapidly to cope with the modern and so called western country. Its business has got new dimensions and the whole country economy has started to play a good role in shaping the worlds future to some extends. The participation of developing countries in world trade is much lower than their participation in world production, as the main producers (China, India and Brazil) have huge domestic markets.Although China is the world’s largest producer, only a relatively small proportion of its production is exported, but its exports are increasing rapidly (United Nations, 2007) GDP growth of broad Industry sector was 9. 56% in FY 2005-06. The performance of the industrial sector was mainly based on the growth in textile and wearing apparel, drugs and pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, petroleum products, glass products, cement, electronics, footwear and food & beverage industries. In addition to that, we can see that the total export earnings registered a 21. 3% increase during 2005-2006 and rose to US$ 10156 million (16. 03% of GDP) from US$ 8655 million (14. 18 of GDP) in 2004-2005. Exports increased chiefly due to higher demand in both developed and developing countries. Garments had the major share (38. 86%), followed by knitwear and hosiery (35. 43%), frozen foods (4. 43%), jute goods (3. 94%) leather (2. 31%), chemical products (2. 52%) and raw jute (1. 03%) (Export Promotion Bureau Bangladesh, 2005-2006). Bangladesh is not well prepared to address the new requirements in international markets.Existing mechanisms for gathering, processing and disseminating information are not working properly and there is hardly any coordination, follow-up and monitoring. Largely, stakeholders are mostly unaware, uninformed and unconcerned. However, some private foundations and NGOs are raising awar eness among producers of quality requirements and providing them with training. They are also exploring non-traditional markets (United Nations, 2007). The processing industries in the Region’s countries (Asia and Pacific region) are essentially agro-based enterprises.There is a huge range of ethnic and traditional food products in each of the countries. The local food industry has evolved around domestically available agricultural raw materials, such as maize or corn, paddy rice, fruits, vegetable, root crops, sugarcane, coconuts, oil palm, spices, beverages (tea, coffee, cocoa) and honey. Modern food processing plants have been introduced in developing Region’s countries, initially centered on processed foods derived from processed meats, wheat and flour products, and dairy products. This has led to an increase in imported raw materials ingredients and packaging, for the roduction of this type of food. In more recent years, however, indigenous companies have set up, often in joint venture with multinational corporations, to process local raw materials such as pineapples, cassava, fruits and vegetables to be packed, labeled and exported under the corporations’ brand names. These operations include food canning, carbonated beverages, frozen food manufacture, and flour and starch production. The companies apply total quality assurance as well as comprehensive research and development procedures to ensure high quality innovative products (Hicks, 2001).Bangladesh has been involved in frozen food business for a long period of time. During the 1970s, our frozen food industry started with rapid expansion of seafood processing and exporting. Now, the industry has come a long way with the frozen foods export is the second largest export sector of the country. Currently, many firms are involved in both import and export of frozen food. Imported goods include various fruits, semi cooked food, full cooked foods, whereas, exported goods encompass froz en shrimp, lobster, crab, and various vegetables.Although the industry involves both exports and imports, it is actually an export-oriented industry with an average annual growth rate of about 28% in the export area. In 1997, the fourth leading export item in Bangladesh was frozen shrimp and fish, with a 7. 3 percent share of the total export market (www. ifpri. org). The industry includes the following sub-sectors: Hatcheries, Sustainable aqua-culture technology, Feed meals plants, and processing unit for value-added products. The frozen food could be categorized into – (1) Fresh Foods, (2) Semi Cooked/Processes Food, and (3) Full Cooked/Processes Foods (http://www. oi. gov. bd). †¢Fresh Foods: Fresh foods are those which has not cooked or baked but has done some modifications where necessary. For example, Sea Food, Beef, Chicken, Fishes, Mutton etc. †¢Semi-Cooked/Processed Foods: Semi Cooked/processed foods are those which has made or shaped or cooked in such a wa y that it can be eaten/use just by a simple cooking process at home. That means, these types of foods are already cooked to some extend and made ready to use after a short cook/bake. For example, Samucha, Singara, Noodles, Porota, etc. Full-Cooked/Processed Foods: Full Cooked/processes foods are those which has made or shaped or cooked in such a way that it can be eaten/use instantly at any time. That means, these types of foods are already cooked/processed to use instantly. For example, Ice-Cream, Juice, etc. The government of Bangladesh and many other national and international organizations have been actively participating for the quality control of the industry. Bangladesh Frozen Foods Exporters Association (BFFEA), a company with limited liability, is the main organization that is involved with this industry and established in 1984.Its main job is to promote and protect the interest of Frozen Food processors, Packers and Exporters in Bangladesh. It also involves in establishing and Promoting, contacts with foreign buyers, business association and the Chamber of Commerce and Industries for developing export marketing and marketing of Frozen Foods (http://www. bangladeshembassy). A Fish and Fish Product Ordinance (Inspection and Quality Control) was created by the Bangladesh government and in 1985 upgraded the inspection laboratory and its personnel (www. ifpri. org).Among the international organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has helped this industry too. It has developed product standards, regulations, and fish inspection schemes. Based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach, FAO initiated a 1996 project to give a hand in the preparation of a fish safety and quality control program for the seafood plants in Bangladesh, Intergovernmental Organization for Marketing Information and Technical Advisory Services for Fishery Products in the Asia Pacific Region (INFOFISH) also aided the industry several times.It has carried out projects that focused on the export promotion of value-added products and their sustainable development (http://www. ifpri. org). Another international organization, International Technology Development Group (ITDG), promotes food processing to help the rural poor in developing countries to secure sustainable livelihoods. This is part of ITDG’s goal to build the technical skills of poor people in developing countries to improve their lives (O. Yu, 2002).ITDG links up with local organizations to provide training and support to food processors and entrepreneurs emphasizing on flexibility, little capital investment requirement, and operating in the home without the need for sophisticated or expensive equipment. Among the projects of are cereal milling in Peru, snack food production in Bangladesh, and fruit and vegetable drying in the Sudan (Halweil, 2002). ITDG began operating in Bangladesh in the early 1980s, but the ITDG–Bangladesh (ITDG -B) program was not formally established until 1990.ITDG-B provides technical assistance to small producers and local organizations, including training, product research and development, disseminating information, networking and policy advocacy (O. YU, 2002). Food processing could help the rural poor in Bangladesh, especially women, who are among the most disadvantaged. Food processing often requires only a little capital and can use local produce. Many Bangladeshi women, ITDG-B found, were already processing snack foods such as home made samucha, singara etc. Building on their own know-how, women could increase their household income by using local resources to process foodstuff.Food processing can serve several development objectives for households and small business: increased income, greater savings, food security and better nutrition (ITDG, 1999). Agro processing in the broad sense is important to the national economy, having shown a purported 32 per cent annual growth in past years (Bangladesh Economic Review, 1995). While large companies have now entered the snack food market, small producers serve local markets and boost local economies. Preserving food stretches the utility and productivity of farm produce, which is often wasted during peak seasons but scarce during lean seasons.Food processing helps to make food available during lean seasons and helps to stabilize household income (O. Yu, 2002). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has pointed out that the value realized from processing and marketing farm products can surpass primary production (FAO, 1995). The present market for these products is a sellers’ market dominated by a number of firms. Consumers have choices of different quality and price. Producers with appropriate marketing strategies are receiving market acceptance in the domestic market.The market for processed food products is becoming highly sophisticated and consumers are becoming more quality conscious. Major local ma rkets include Dhaka and Chittagong cities. Apart from a growing domestic demand, the government is encouraging the export of processed foods, which is important for this sector. Processed food products in the local market move from processors to the consumers through a chain of wholesalers and retailers. Distribution to the export market is through direct exporting or through trading companies (Hossain & Sheel, 2001). Constrains and Scope for DevelopmentWhile small-scale food processing offers numerous opportunities for improving livelihoods, several constraints that hamper development need to be addressed. A major one is that large companies such as Bombay Mix, Aftab, Rich etc. have begun producing myriad processed foods, including snacks, pickles, jelly and jam. Therefore, there is a stiff competition among the large and small scale producers in the domestic market (Hossain & Sheel, 2001). According to the Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), by April 2000 approximately ten large companies were manufacturing it.Another problem is that small producers have limited know-how in the technology of preparing food products, as mentioned by Azam Ali, coordinator of agro processing programs at ITDG, lack of proper information and expertise seems to be a particular problem in the case of small-scale food processing even though it can be a major source of jobs and additional income. A number of other concerns that inhibit small-scale food processing in Bangladesh (ITDG, 1998) need to be addressed: †¢There is a significant difference between having the ability to produce for home consumption and establishing a small business based on this product.A range of skills (both technical and business) is needed to make the transition from home production to the running of a small-scale enterprise. †¢Linked to this is the ability to locate and target markets. This is a dynamic sector. Rural producers need to learn how to monitor change, develop markets and sell t heir products. Know-how in selling and locating wider markets was a common limitation. †¢Consumer perception is an important issue faced by small-scale processors. There is a common perception that foods produced by small-scale operators are unhygienic and unsafe.This may be somewhat true but is commonly exaggerated. Nonetheless, processors need to be more conscious of hygiene, quality and consistency in food handling, including dangers of adulteration. †¢ Lack of access to raw materials, appropriate equipment and packaging materials are obstacles that small-scale processors frequently face. †¢Access to credit is lacking. Many of the small-scale processors belong to the most marginalized sector of the population and do not have disposable income. To enable them to put their skills into practice, most need access to credit to purchase equipment and raw materials. They also lack access to appropriate and timely information on a range of topics. To compete effectively, s mall-scale food processors need reliable technological information and information on suppliers and prices of materials, equipment and packaging, and marketing information. †¢Recording transactions is a problem because of low literacy. In the 1990s, only 34. 4 per cent of Bangladesh’s population was literate. Literacy among women was 25. 5 per cent. In rural areas it was as low as 13 per cent (BBS, 1999). Most problems were market related: competition with large companies, inconsistent quality, inferior packaging and labeling, marketing and selling, insufficient access to quality raw materials, and lack of confidence among consumers in products of small-scale producers (Azami et al. , 1996; Azmi & Chowdhury, 1996). †¢The value-added tax imposed by the government to the processed food industry and limited promotional activities for the small scale business due to the high cost of advertisement in mass media (Hossain & Sheel, 2001).The changing role of multinational c ompanies and demographic factors, and more globalization of production and market are likely to enforce developing countries like Bangladesh to face increased competition emanating from liberal trade regimes, big MNCs enjoying economies of scale by virtue of their global operation, and lack of access to global market because of no brand name and heavy expense of advertising for local firms (Hussain, 2002). As such in case of Malaysian processed food, they have the technology and the means to locally process food into higher-value products where there is ess competition from other exporting countries such as Bangladesh (http://www. delmys. cec. eu. int). Furthermore, there is a lack of modern infrastructure and equipment for food processing in many developing countries of the Region. Inadequate transportation, poor distribution, inadequate cold storage and freezer capacity, lack of potable water and unreliable power supply are the main shortcomings. There is a shortage of trained, sk illed labor and technical competence in agriculture especially in the traditional food industry sector.This coupled with poor management, leads to inefficiency and poor competitiveness. Labor costs have risen markedly in newly industrialized countries, in the last decade. This results in higher production costs, for labor-intensive operation. Moving the operation to lower labor cost countries, or automation, is the response of modern food companies (Hicks, 2001). To compete with these challenges developing countries should create employment through economic development and promoting technologies that suit the resource endowment.A country like Bangladesh has large populations. Best way to achieve economic development by using the most abundant resource – labor. Developing countries, therefore, have to supplement the R&D effort and modify technologies to their advantage, at least in sectors where most of the population draws its living such as agriculture, aquaculture, tourism, etc. Local business and enterprise development is important for adding value to local resources, creating employment, and improving traditional products for the global market.Taiwan's herbal teas, dried/pickled fruits, India-Pakistan cooking spices, pickles and chutneys, Malaysian ready-to-cook traditional foods and paratha, are interesting innovations in business development. The potential for further development is vast and should be exploited (Hussain, 2002). The local business development also offers huge economic opportunities. Developing nations that emphasize greater food self-reliance can thereby retain precious foreign exchange and avoid the whims of international markets. There is strong evidence that local food often costs less than the quivalent foods bought on the international market or from a supermarket, because transportation costs are lower and there are fewer middlemen. In fact, rebuilding local food systems might offer the first genuine economic opportunity in f arm country in years, a pressing need in view of the huge amounts of money leaking out of rural communities. To the extent that functions associated with food production and distribution are relocated in the community under local ownership, more money will circulate in the local community to generate more jobs and income.This is particularly true if crops are not only grown locally, but also processed locally or served in local restaurants. This sort of alliance can help arrest the positive feedback loop that makes it harder and harder for independent players to survive. Cornwall in England is an icon that link local food to local food business: In Cornwall, the Cornwall County Council’s in-house meal service provider is backing local food suppliers as part of a ? 1 million contract to supply school meals to 32 county primary and secondary schools for fresh meat, frozen food and vegetables (Halweil, 2002).A study on food processing in Bangladesh assessed the market and the po tential of each activity (Chowdhury ; Sarker, 1989). Their study considered snack foods as secondary food processing. Some interesting findings included the following: †¢Many crops were produced throughout the year. Yet because the farms and production were small, the volume of crops that could be processed was smaller than the capacity of even the smallest machines. In 1996, for example, 52. 85 per cent of holdings were small, 0. 05 to 2. 49 acres. Medium-sized farm holdings, 2. 5 to 7. 9 acres, made up 11. 65 per cent, and large holdings were only 1. 67 per cent (BBS, 1999). †¢Most crops, except jute and tea, were produced for the local market, but production was still less than the country’s total demand. Some crops, therefore, were imported. †¢Crop processing could provide employment for women and the rural poor. However, without appropriate equipment, modern capital-intensive production could overrun the industry and displace women and landless workers. Fu rthermore, snack foods were identified as a focus, along with rice and sugar cane products.ITDG-B determined that there was a need to train fieldworkers on how to make snack foods so that they could guide beneficiaries in running food processing businesses. Post-workshop consultations with development organizations emphasized the need to train fieldworkers further in establishing sustainable small-scale food processing businesses, particularly since the business orientation of these organizations and their staff was inadequate. When ITDG-B looked at existing suppliers of technology and training, it found that the existing training courses were oriented towards large-scale operations (O.Yu, 2002). The search for improved quality and reliability of supply tends to create certain governance structures in the private sector along the supply or value chain. Private sector requirements function as value chain governance tools: by specifying, communicating and enforcing compliance with key product and process parameters along the value chain, large buyers and retailers can benefit from control without ownership. Specific requirements on food safety, quality, and environmental or social issues substitute, to some extent, for direct monitoring and ownership by buyers.These requirements transfer the direct costs of monitoring and control from the buyers to the suppliers, who have to bear the costs of certification yet are rarely compensated through higher prices (United Nations, 2007). Food Quality and Standard in Bangladesh Quality of products is ensured through using appropriate raw materials, the right type of equipment and qualified technical personnel. Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) standards and rules are followed to ensure high quality (Hossain ; Sheel, 2001). The BSTI can play vital role to develop and harmonize food standards for ensuring food quality and security in the country.They also emphasized fixing a standard level to promote food stan dards up to international level and norms to facilitate both the domestic and international trade for boosting the export earnings (http://www. newagebd. com). The BSTI, the national standards body, is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Industries. BSTI performs the task of formulation of national standards of industrial, food and chemical products. Quality control of these products is done according to Bangladesh Standards. Till date BSTI has come up with over 1800 national standards of various products adopting more than 132 International Standards (i. . ISO) and food standards set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (www. thedailystar. net). BSTI certifies the quality of commodities including food items for local consumption, which applies both for export and for import. Currently, 142 products are under compulsory certification marks scheme of BSTI including 54 agricultural and food items (http://www. bsti. gov. bd). The country needs food quality testing faci lities because big international corporate businesses cannot purchase many Bangladeshi food products in the absence of such facilities.One of the major issues that prevent the corporate businesses in the food sector from purchasing from small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh is the lack of quality testing facilities (http://www. sdnbd. org). BSTI has made it mandatory to mention six facts regarding the product on the package. This includes the date of production, date of expiry (best before use), net contents or weight, address of the producers or marketing companies, maximum retail price (MRP) and the ingredients (http://www. bsti. gov. bd).BSTI collects random samples from the factories and buys products from the market to test. If they find sub-standard product they do not have the power to take action against the company or the industry. The BSTI Ordinance 1985 has been amended to Act 2003 for consumers' protection against low quality products (http://www. thedailysta r. net). Only the government food testing laboratory at IPH works on food safety and water quality issues. The legal provisions to ensure proper quality control of food are inadequate (world health organization, 2002).The Institute of Public Health (IPH) organizes its activities of quality control of drugs, food and water, production of vaccines, intravenous fluids, antisera and diagnostic reagents, diagnosis of infectious diseases and related research facilities. IPH is formed to assist the government to prevent and control major health hazards caused by contaminated and adulterated food and water. Besides this, it organizes training programs in the field of diagnosis, control and prevention of infectious diseases and food and water safety.It also conducts various research activities in related fields of public health, and to collaborate and co-operate with other national, international organizations and agencies in the promotion of public health (http://www. thedailystar. net). It is therefore essential to enhance awareness and understanding of the possible implications of quality, food safety and environmental requirements for the food sector in Bangladesh, and to carry out an assessment of the compliance costs and the costs and benefits of a proactive adjustment strategy for the sector, including its impact on competitiveness (United Nations, 2007).Recommendations The new product range of frozen food has put forward the market for semi processed or processed food on the run. As people are becoming more work-based, especially women, there is very less time for cooking or preparing Tiffin for children. It is a relive for working mothers and even easy for bachelors to prepare snacks or such items in no time and with less hassle. The frozen food industry has recently begun in Bangladesh, concentrating in major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong and directing towards only superstores.The growing demand from foreigners residing in cities previously to new generati on working moms and other working people has opened a huge opportunity for potential players to join in this appealing industry. Blooming companies are trying to gain awareness for market share at recent times. This benefits customers in terms of superior quality products and better customer service. Thus, the industry has to devise innovative strategies so as to attract and retain more customers. Availability: To gain more customers the companies need to reach out to retail outlets or departmental stores at various corners of the city.Although the product needs to be kept in special freezers, these companies can make it happen. They can provide incentives for retailers or even at potential customer bases can provide with freezers themselves! In order to sustain in this competitive arena, where lot of frozen food imports are pouring in, the industry in Bangladesh needs to be strong in distribution. Export: Companies should spread its boundaries to outside country to gain more revenu e. Things like shrimps and prawns and vegetables are already good frozen exports and are earning good amount of revenue. So, exporting can be good choice to expand.Science and Technology: Distribution and mass customized production may be in the form of acquiring new and advanced store equipments. Such things would increase the pace of goods delivered to customers. Specialized equipment for preserving frozen foods may be acquired. Equipment is being developed that will give both visibility and attractiveness to both frozen food, made possible by new advances in refrigeration which permit visibility but retain low temperature. Modern machinery and technology can help in product design and development, mass production, standardization and quality control, packaging and transport.Promotion: At this point, the frozen food companies should do rigorous promotional activities in order to increase awareness level in probable customers. Different programs may include in-store demonstrations of how easy the food is to prepare, leaflets of the items given to the parents when they wait to take their kids from schools. Leaflets in newspapers and colorful ads in the TV during drama time, 9:00 pm to be shown in various satellite Bangladeshi channels can also be good starting. Another ground to show off is during the international trade fairs.Placing: The cities are big and to create a place there one needs to be different. The people to be targeted are literate working people with white color jobs or students. Therefore to reach this mass a company needs to set up somewhere from where distribution is easy to retailers. Another daring step can be to have a forward linkage or integration. That is to say to have a retail outlet of only company made frozen food. This is company owned and can have a small cafe serving only snacks out of their items. The shop should have people from the company who can answer to any queries the people ay have. Innovation: Constant rendering is req uired to have a strong hold on the market share. Outside of Bangladesh frozen food has ranged from snacks to whole meals. The frozen food companies should develop new products through research and development to match with the ever changing demands. They should always try to make ways to lower cost without hampering quality much so to compete with the imports. Installment of Training Programs Manpower: Manipulative skills are available to the agro-industries in the Region.However, inadequacy of in-depth technical understanding and lack of management skills in the workforce restricts innovation and consistent performance. Therefore, government as well as private sector should develop a sound technological and industrial base, human resources in science, technology administration and management. Institutes for research and development working on the needs of frozen food industries should be established at different levels of development. Infrastructure Development and Favorable Trade Policy: Both institutional and physical, is a component of most national development plans.Establishment of basic infrastructure such as roads, distribution system, power supply, and favorable and supportive policy to have adequate cold storage and freezer system is recognized as essential for the growth of semi-processed food industries. There should be a modern infrastructure and equipment for food processing. Conclusion It is very much clear that Bangladesh potential country to produce frozen food due to its resource endowment – abundant labor force that is suitable for the production of frozen food. The essence of the frozen food business is that it becomes an income source for the local and rural people.There are large organizations associated with this industry, and thus a huge number of employees are employed. That is how this industry is keeping a great deal of contribution in removing unemployment rate and creating more employment opportunity, and, shaping its future . Furthermore, increasing demand both in local and in overseas for the frozen food and little investment requirement make this business more attractive and profitable for small-scale and larger producers. However, massive pressure from imported semi-processed foods is affecting the local small-scale producers such as home made foods.Therefore, frozen food businesses require achieving the quality standard and government should aid small-size business with tax reduction, and facilitate more investment. Here, the private sectors or larger organization can play an important role by facilitating the small producers in the value creation activities. Furthermore, consumer awareness is also a big factor to develop the frozen food industry. Unless and until the consumes are willing to buy locally produced semi-processed food and help the local producers produce quality products, the development of frozen food business country wide might not take place.